Bibliografía sugerida por Ricardo Naranjo Faccini

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One of the most important skills you can learn as a Linux user is how to use a manual page, or "man page."

Si estás leyendo estas líneas, no hace falta que te explique qué es Vim, cual es su curva de aprendizaje o cuales son sus principales vistudes o defectos.

Believe it or not, I use Vim as my every-day word processor. I like its simple layout and its modal design that favors keyboard commands above mouse clicks.

Macros represent a simple concept which can be described as "record the sequence of my actions, save them, and anytime I need them again, execute them."

Este documento pretende ser una guía para el novato en vi, al final se muestran las funcionalidades y la potencia de gvim, el cual puede ser utilizado apoyándose en el uso del ratón.
In this tutorial, we will show you how to edit files on the command line. This article covers three command line editors, vi (or vim), nano, and emacs.

So far, in our tutorials centered around Vim, we discussed the editor's Modeline feature as well as how Vim's feature-set can be expanded using plugins. However, as we all know, Vim offers a plethora of in-built features; so taking the discussion further, in this tutorial, we will discuss the available modes in which the editor can be launched.

The need to learn how to use text editors in Linux is indisputable. Every system administrator and engineer deal with configuration (plain text) files on a daily basis, and most times this is done purely using one or more tools from a command-line interface (such as nano, vim, or emacs).

In the previous article of this series we reviewed 7 tips and tricks to add to your vi/m skills set. Besides the reasons given previously, learning how to use effectively a text editor in Linux in an essential ability for a system administrator or engineer and is a required competency to pass any major Linux certification program (such as LFCS, LFCE, RHCSA, and RHCE).

Vim, as you might already know, is a feature-packed and powerful editor. Here at HowtoForge, we've written several tutorials on Vim, covering its basic usage, plugins, as well as some other useful features. But given the sea of features Vim offers, we always find something useful to share with our readership.

Create ASCII drawings inside Vim EditorYou can create line drawings in Vim editor using the Vim DrawIt! plugin. You can draw flow charts, ER diagrams, or any other diagrams that can be created as line drawing inside a text editor using this plugin.

Aparte de los que muestra el artículo revisen también que tiene un catálogo de software en rpm muy completo, sirve para Redhat y Mageia. Los que presenta el artículo están orientados a Debian y Ubuntu.

As the workforce becomes more mobile and employers look for ways to improve productivity, collaboration software become increasingly popular. According to a June 2016 study from Markets and Markets, organizations will spend $23.39 billion on cloud-based collaboration software tools this year. By 2021, the analysts expect the market to grow to $42.57 billion, for a compound annual growth rate of 12.7 percent.

Este listado tiene muchos enlaces a las páginas web de los paquetes libres y privativos que pueden ayudar para la conferencia o la revisión.

As data storage needs continue to grow and many organizations move toward software-defined infrastructure, more enterprises are using open source software to meet some of their storage needs. Projects like Hadoop, Ceph, Gluster and others have become very common at large enterprises.

Build simple business applications and keep track of your data with these worthy open source alternatives.

Hace algunos meses en Genbeta compartimos con ustedes una larga lista de aplicaciones gratuitas que son tan buenas que cuesta creer que no haya que pagar nada por ellas. Y sin embargo, no son ni de lejos las únicas que cumplen con esas descripción.

Para el software más común hay muchas alternativas en FOSS (Free and Open Source Software)

Un directorio de aplicaciones de software libre organizado por temáticas

The number of open source applications and tools that are available on today's popular operating systems is simply mind-blowing. They come in all forms. Small scripts and console tools that can be easily integrated into large projects, feature-rich applications that offer everything a complete solution, well designed tools, games that encourage real participation, and eye catching candy.

For probably the better part of 15 years, PDF has been the de facto standard for sharing, e-mailing, and printing documents. It is a well-supported format, and Linux distributions have been able to read them since, well, since forever! The only problem is, while Windows and MacOS machines can easily buy and install Adobe Acrobat Pro, there is no native Linux version. Still, there are a few good Linux PDF editors available, and I had a go at testing them for you.

Linux users are perpetually stuck in a dilemma. While the freedom of open source is great, Linux consistently sits between 1% and 2% market share, which means industry standard programs, like Photoshop, rarely give Linux users the time of day.

These open source applications replace expensive apps for home and business users, which in some cases can free you from the burden of monthly subscription fees.
Download these open source apps for all manner of creative tasks, from video to graphic image editing.

Portable apps are great invention that not many people talk about. The ability to take any program to any PC, and continue using it is very handy. This is especially true for those that need to get work done, and don't have anything with you but a flash drive.

In this article, we feature 10 ecommerce software solutions that can make setting up an online store easier. These are all open source solutions, which means that they are completely free if you run the software on your own server. If you don't want to host your own website, many of them are also available through hosting providers for a small fee.

Like many of you, I too have found myself wooed by the convenience of using Dropbox. It's cross platform, simple to setup and provides a cloud storage option for those who might otherwise be less inclined to store files off-site. In this article I'll explore alternatives to Dropbox for Linux users.

Last year, I covered five of the best open source project management tools, like ProjectLibre and OpenProject. The article struck a chord with readers and continues to prove valuable. So, this year I revisited the tools mentioned in last year's article, taking into account comments and suggestions from readers, and provided an update on where they are today. First, I share five new open source project management tools for 2015. All in all, this article will give you a good look at 11 of the top open source project management tools out there.

For the last three years, I have rounded up the most popular open source project management tools for readers. As there continues to be major reader interest in this area, I decided to take a look back at the tools we covered in 2014 and 2015, and give you updates on all of these projects. I looked to see which projects had new releases, notable new and improved features, and more.

Taiga is one of the most popular open source project management tools out there right now. It is known for being usable and having a beautiful interface, and listed it in both the Top 5 open source project management tools in 2015 and the Top 11 project management tools for 2016.

Como ya sabréis, desgraciadamente ha comenzado la cuesta de Enero, en la cual se ponen a prueba las habilidades contables de la gente para cuadrar todas las cuentas. Éstas tareas se realizan mucho más fácilmente con un buen programa contable que con una calculadora y un papel.

Hablar de aplicaciones de Finanzas en Linux no suena muy a menudo y es que muchos desconocen de grandes aplicaciones que pueden ser utilizadas en Linux o que desconocen que son multiplatforma.

Aplicación ERP y CRM que permite gestionar toda la actividad de una empresa , diseñada para ser utilizada para cualquier tipo de compañía. Se puede utilizar como aplicación y como aplicación web,con acceso a Internet o LAN

Aplicación para contabilidad personal que proporciona una cómoda interfaz gráfica para la administración de múltiples cuentas.

Aplicación para gestionar contabilidad personal, diseñado para ser simple y con un interfaz amigable.

Fava is a web interface for the double-entry bookkeeping software Beancount with a focus on features and usability.

Solución ERP con una arquitectura en tres capas; cliente, servidor y base de datos, que componen un plataforma para la gestión empresarial, proporcionando una API propia para extender las funcionalidades.

Completa suite de aplicaciónes para la empresa, esta compuesto por; EPR, CRM comercio electrónico, administración de proyectos, TPV, Marketing, contabilidad, inventario..etc. También integra aplicaciones de terceros.

The advent of digital mapping and geospatial information systems (GIS) has completely changed the way humans think about and interact with the world around them.

AutoCAD, esta plataforma desarrollada por Autodesk, es uno de los software más utilizados en el mundo ingenieril. Es la herramienta favorita de ingenieros civiles, ingenieros mecánicos, industriales, de construcción, arquitectos, y sobre todo de empresas como Habiteca que se dedican a la construcción de casas.

¿Cómo ha ido este verano? Espero que hayáis descansado o al menos cambiado un poco la rutina habitual. Siempre es bueno ir haciendo un reset o reinicio de tanto en tanto.

Primitive shapes can be used for geometric modeling of more complex shapes.

Every company has finite resources, so there is a dispute over the use of these resources by all members, this is the point, the dispute of these resources can cause problems among employees, wear and tear on relationships and unproductivity in the organization.
This discussion seems to be far from the technology, however, to solve these types of problem, many free Softwares are available and in this article, I write about a corporate tool able to help organize the use of resources in a fair and effective way.

Joplin allows you to store and organize notes, files, and more, without fear of vendor lock-in.

Hoy, Mozilla lo ha conseguido. Firefox 54 es la primera versión estable del navegador basada en el multiproceso. Eso significa que, a partir de ahora, cada pestaña tendrá su propio proceso independiente, y podrá ser asignado a cada núcleo por el sistema.

Odoo is one of the most popular and most powerful Open Source ERP business software based on the Python programming language. In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Odoo 10 on an Ubuntu 16.04 VPS. This new version of Odoo includes numerous improvements including new manufacturing apps and faster website operations.

ERPNext is a free and open source ERP software written in Python on top of the Frappe framework and includes Accounting, Inventory, Manufacturing, CRM, Sales, Purchase, Project Management, HRMS and more. ERPNext is a simple, powerful and easy to use ERP system. It comes with beautiful web interface that can be used to manage the day to day tasks from a central location.

In this guide, we'll show you how to install and configure the latest version of Prestashop on Debian 9.1 release, in order to create your free online shopping cart.

Prestashop is a free Open Source e-commerce content management platform written in PHP programming language which is often deployed on Linux under Apache/Nginx web servers, PHP and MySQL/MariaDB database management system.  Prestashop CMS is highly used today to create online shops for different businesses and advertise and sell services and merchandise.

One of the many advantages the Internet age has given us is the ability to launch and manage businesses online using a virtually unending list of resources that are free, paid, open source, and proprietary.

ReportServer is a free and open source business intelligence (OSBI) platform with powerful reporting and analysis tools. It gathers data from multiple business touch points and generates different reports from the data. It provides a responsive and unified interface to display the data to the user. It provides powerful ad hoc reporting capabilities and integrates Jasper and Eclipse BIRT in one unified environment.

Matlab es una herramienta de computación matemática, nos ofrece un entorno de desarrollo integrado con su propio lenguaje de programación. Este software suele ser usado para análisis de datos, manipulación de matrices o representación de funciones, también suele ser usado como vínculo de comunicación con otros programas y otros lenguajes, incluso en programación hardware como podría ser Arduino.


Install the Ring Free Software VIOP client.


This guide covers Debian, Ubuntu, and Fedora, but Ring can be installed from source on other distributions.

Create podcasts, online lectures, tutorials, and other teaching resources for learning at home with open source tools.

Curious about what the new Linux subsystem in Windows 10 can and can't do? Here's what we've learned about its first release

El software libre no impide en un principio la venta del software producido bajo este concepto, incluso cuando se trata de productos derivados. Sin embargo, a veces nos encontramos con casos cuya ética es cuando menos cuestionable.

Uncomforted reports suggest Linux users may want to be careful when upgrading Windows 10

In this tutorial, we will show you how to install Redmine on CentOS 7. Redmine is a free and open source issue tracking and web-based project management application . Redmine is built on Ruby on Rails framework and it is cross-platform and cross-database. This guide should work on other Linux VPS systems as well but was tested and written for CentOS 7 VPS

Zammad is an open source helpdesk/customer support system written in Ruby. It's a web-based ticketing system with many features, including support to manage customer communication over several channels like Facebook, telegram, chat, and emails. Zammad is distributed under the GNU AFFERO General public License (AGPL) and can be installed on different platforms like Linux, AIX, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and MacOSX. It's available on Github and is free for install on your own server.

Swift is a programming language developed by Apple Inc. It is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS. According to the developers, Swift is a fantastic way to write software, whether it’s for phones, desktops, servers, or anything else that runs code. It’s a safe, fast, and interactive programming language that combines the best in modern language thinking with wisdom from the wider Apple engineering culture and the diverse contributions from its open-source community. The compiler is optimized for performance and the language is optimized for development, without compromising on either.

We've just been informed today by Krita Foundation's Scott Petrovic about the release and immediate availability of the Krita 4.0 open-source and cross-platform digital painting software for Linux, Windows, and Mac systems.

LimeSurvey is a free and an open source online survey application written in PHP and uses a MySQL or PostgreSQL database. LimeSurvey allow us to create, develop and publish online surveys and collect responses from them, without doing any coding and scripting.

Drawing Arrows in GIMP used to be very easy. You were able to head to the plugin site and download a script that could handle all your arrow-based needs without an issue.

After being in development for the last 15 years, the Inkscape open-source and free vector graphics editor is finally reaching the 1.0 milestone, proving its maturity with new and exciting features and improvements.

If you need a task manager application to run on your Linux operating system, tap into a software category filled with options that go far beyond the to-do list app you have stuffed into your smartphone.

The type of organizing tools you use to plan your projects can make your work routine more efficient and improve your productivity. A project management application is an essential tool in some business environments.

Hace unos días se dio a conocer que Adobe descontinuó versiones anteriores de algunas de sus aplicaciones de Creative Cloud, y ahora tenemos que la compañía está advirtiendo de posibles consecuencias legales por seguir usando esos programas

Reflexiones sobre el uso del software privativo de Adobe® y porqué optamos por el software libre.
-"¿En GNU/Linux puedo instalar Photoshop®?", "Sí quiero GNU/Linux, pero uso la paquetería de Adobe® porque lo uso para trabajar", "No tengo tiempo para aprender a usar otros programas", "Es que GIMP no es tan bueno para editar imágenes".

For any number of reasons, open source software is embraced by data analytics researchers and professionals. This might be because many top researchers work in the education sector, and the emphasis is on cutting costs – hence the attractiveness of an open source free download. Or might be because the same mindset required for the deep exploration of data is similar to the love of software development common among many open source developers. Whatever the case, the data tools on this list are open source leaders as data analytics becomes ever more important.

GeoGebra es una plataforma que utilizamos una gran cantidad de profesores de matemáticas, y de ciencias en general, para mostrar al alumnado contenidos dinámicos relacionados con nuestras asignaturas.

Por ello, cuando creamos materiales para nuestras clases, nos resulta necesario tener una forma rápida y sencilla de incorporar construcciones de GeoGebra a estos materiales.

Una opción muy cómoda para ello es utilizar el “iDevice” GeoGebra de eXeLearning, tanto si estamos desarrollando nuestros materiales íntegramente con eXeLearning, como si tan solo lo necesitamos para subir algunas actividades a nuestro entorno Moodle o, en general, cualquier LMS. Además, si las actividades son autoevaluables, tendremos la ventaja de que Moodle recogerá las calificaciones del alumnado y podremos visualizarlas de la misma forma que cualquier otra actividad evaluable de nuestra plataforma.


CronJob is the task scheduler in Linux which schedules the task at a specific time or schedules task to repeat itself after a specific time. In this tutorial, you are going to learn how to set up a Cron Job on Ubuntu.

The crontab is used to automate all types of tasks on Linux systems. This is an especially important skill for aspiring system administrators to learn. It can be somewhat challenging to get started if you’re a beginner. The syntax is different than most other commands. For this reason, this lesson will include a little more background information before I show you some of the uses.

We'll show you, how to use Linux crontab. In few asimple steps we will explain, how to automate your system tasks using crontab in Linux. The cron software utility is a time-based job scheduler in Unix-like operating systems. Cron is driven by a crontab (cron table) file, a configuration file that specifies shell commands to run periodically on a given schedule. The crontab files are stored where the lists of jobs and other instructions to the cron daemon are kept. Users can have their own individual crontab files and often there is a system-wide crontab file (usually in /etc or a subdirectory of /etc) that only system administrators can edit.

In this tutorial we will learn to use an important Linux utility named 'Crontab'. With the help of Crontab or cron, we can execute a command or a script to run at a particular time.

In this article we are going to review and see how we can schedule and run tasks in the background automatically at regular intervals using Crontab command. Dealing a frequent job manually is a daunting task for system administrator. Such process can be schedule and run automatically in the background without human intervene using cron daemon in Linux or -like operating system.

A system administrator often needs to run a command repeatedly in a certain periods of time. Often such tasks can be easily completed with simple cron commands. In most of the cases  this should work, but the shortest period which you can run cron command is every 1 minute. Believe it or not, in many cases this is too slow.

Como administrador del sistema Linux, puedes realizar una programación de trabajos / tareas basada en el tiempo utilizando los servicios de trabajo cron en línea o Cron , una utilidad poderosa disponible en sistemas Unix / Linux.

Some time ago I read that one of the distinguishing characteristics of an effective system administrator / engineer is laziness. It seemed a little contradictory at first but the author then proceeded to explain why:

if a sysadmin spends most of his time solving issues and doing repetitive tasks, you can suspect he or she is not doing things quite right. In other words, an effective system administrator / engineer should develop a plan to perform repetitive tasks with as less action on his / her part as possible, and should foresee problems by using...

Antes de irme a dormir existen ocasiones en las que me pongo en la cama escuchando un podcast o la radio a través del ordenador. Al rato de estar escuchando la radio o el podcast acaba pasando una de estas dos cosas:

  1. Me quedo dormido y el ordenador queda abierto toda la noche. Obviamente no me gusta quedarme dormido con el ordenador y la radio encendida.
  2. Una vez estoy ya medio dormido tengo que levantarme para apagar el ordenador. Obviamente esto molesta ya que después hay que volver a coger el sueño.

Para solucionar este pequeño problema tenemos varias soluciones. Una de ellas es programar el apagado del ordenador.

"watch" command is small utility using which you can execute shell command or script repetitively and after every n seconds. Its helpful in automation or monitoring. Once can design automation by monitoring some code/command output using watch to trigger next course of action e.g. notification.

When working on the Linux Kernel, testing via QEMU is pretty common. Many virtual drivers have been recently merged, useful either to test the kernel core code, or your application. These virtual drivers make QEMU even more attractive.

No es ningún secreto que los vehículos eléctricos Tesla utilizan Linux como base para ejecutar su software y los drivers que necesitan. De hecho, debido a la licencia GPL, se puede encontrar el código correspondiente (o al menos parte de él) en sus repositorios de GitHub.

Ansible is a free and open source software that can be used to automate software provisioning, configuration management, and application deployment. Unlike Puppet or Chef, you don't have to set up a client-server environment before using Ansible. You can manage multiple hosts from a central location. This tool is very simple yet powerful to automate complex multi-tier IT application environments. Ansible communicates over normal SSH channels to retrieve information from remote machines and perform tasks.


While downloading files, it is not uncommon to see the .tar,  .zip or .gz extensions. But do you know the difference between Tar and Zip and Gz? Why we use them and which is more efficient, tar or zip or gz?

Sin embargo yo, personalmente, utilizo y prefiero BZIP que tiene niveles de compresión superiores, para comprimir: tar jcvf comprimido.tbz2 lista de archivos; y para descomprimir tar jxvf comprimido.tbz2

Gunzip is a command-line tool for decompressing Gzip files.

Tar (tape archive ) is the most widely used command in like operating system for creating archive of multiple files and folders into a single archive file and that archive file can be further compressed using  gzip and bzip2 techniques. In other words we can say that tar command is used to take backup by archiving multiple files and directory into a single tar or archive file and later on files & directories can be extracted from the tar compressed file.

The tar command is a software utility for combining multiple files into one archive file. These files are often referred to as tarballs in the Linux / Unix community. The name originally stood for tape archive, which was it's original purpose. It has a long history and has been around since the late 1970's.

How do I use tar command over secure ssh session running on Linux or UNIX-like system?

tar is an archive utility tool for GNU/Linux. Primarily used to distribute executable software or package the software source code in the tarball for later distribution. The most popular being gzip and you might have noticed the source file of a program usually ends with *.tar.gz. Well, that doesn't mean you can't use it to create an archive for other file types. You can.
Tarballs provide a versatile way to back up and manage groups of files on Linux systems. Follow these tips to learn how to create them, as well as extract and remove individual files from them.

I have a lot of Linux tutorial videos in my Laptop. I wanted all of them in my Google Drive, for the sake of backup. The problem is those videos are more than 1 GiB in size. It is practically not a good approach to upload that much big files to my Google drive. Even though Google Drive allows us to upload files up to 5TB, I find it is very time consuming, because it takes lot of time to upload. While contemplating with this issue, I figured it out that it would be much better if I can be able to split those files into smaller size and upload them all one by one. I can then download all parts of the file, and combine all of them, whenever I want. This is just an example. There might be many changes that you want to break a large file into pieces and combine them later. If you ever been in this situation, afraid not. There is a simple command line utility called "split"  which is used to split the big files into multiple smaller files, and you can join all of them late to make a single file. Sounds useful? Indeed.

Today, I wanted to reinstall one of my virtual machine which is running with Ubuntu 16.04 LTS server. Before reinstalling, I tried to backup the entire system. While searching for an easiest way to do this, I found a plausible solution in Arch Linux wiki page. I never thought that it was going to be that much simple. I copied my entire root / tree with Rsync in a single line command. Yes, it is just a one line command. While there there so many tools to backup your systems, I find this method is much easier and convenient, at least to me. Also, this method is better than disk cloning with dd command. Because It doesn't matter if your hard drive is different size, or use different filesystem. This method will work in all cases.

Copying files from one location to another is a pretty basic task and can be easily achieved by using the cp command. However, sometimes, you have to do a little more. This is where the rsync command comes especially when you are transferring the larger files. Rsync (Remote Sync) is a Linux based command-line tool that can be used to sync and copy files between local and remote servers. It allows synchronization of files between two directories on the same computer, between the directories in two different computers on the same network, between two directories on the remote system.

In this article, we are going to discuss some of the commonly used rsync examples that will familiarise you with rsync & help you get started with using rsync command.

Find out how to use rsync in a backup scenario.
duplicity - Encrypted backup using rsync algorithm

Readers suggest more than a dozen of their favorite solutions for protecting data

Si estábais preguntándoos como poder hacer una copia de seguridad de vuestros datos en Linux, ya podéis ir preparando los discos duros. En LinuxLinks han hecho uno de sus artículos multicapítulo para hablarnos de nada menos que 21 soluciones de backup existentes para Linux.

Rsnapshot is a filesystem snapshot utility based on rsync for UNIX-like operating systems. It allows you to easily make periodic snapshots of local machines, and remote machines over ssh. The good thing about rsnapshot is it makes extensive use of hard links whenever possible, to greatly reduce the disk space required. Since rsnapshot only keeps a fixed number of snapshots, the amount of disk space used will not continuously increase. Rnapshot is completely free, and open source utility that provides incremental backups. It is written entirely in perl, and it should work on most UNIX-like systems.

This tutorial describes how to synchronize local and remote directories in Linux using Lsyncd (Live Syncing Daemon). Using Lsyncd, we can easily mirror local to local directories or local to remote directories. It will be very helpful, when you want to sync data between directories which are frequently updated with new contents. Lsyncd is designed to synchronize a local directory tree with low profile of expected changes to a remote mirror. It is especially useful to sync data from a secure area to a not-so-secure area.

FreeFileSync is a free, open source and cross platform folder comparison and synchronization software, which helps you synchronize files and folders on Linux, Windows and Mac OS.

It is portable and can also be installed locally on a system, it's feature-rich and is intended to save time in setting up and executing backup operations while having attractive graphical interface as well.

Ser precavido vale por dos. No quita mucho tiempo y nos salvará de un disgusto en caso de desastre. Es así en casi todo, y en especial en lo referente a nuestra computadora.

Backing up app data, text messages and the like in Android can be incredibly tedious, and sometimes costly too. Many apps on the Play Store promise to back up your data but are hit and miss or cost an arm and a leg. Did you know that there's a better way to do this and that it can all be done on your computer?

Open Source system cleaner application BleachBit version 2.0 has been released. The new version brings some improvements and new features to the most used system cleaning application on Linux.


Se ha publicado la nueva edición del ranking de las 500 computadoras de mayor rendimiento en el mundo, siendo este la 54ª edición. Ademas de que al mismo tiempo, está disponible una nueva versión de la calificación alternativa Graph 500 para sistemas de clúster, destinada a evaluar el rendimiento de las plataformas de supercomputadora relacionadas con la simulación de procesos físicos y las tareas de procesamiento de grandes conjuntos de datos inherentes a dichos sistemas. La calificación Green500 ya no se emite por separado y se combina con el Top500.

Si estáis al tanto de las noticias ‘linuxeras’ allende MuyLinux, y seguro que lo estáis, ya os habéis enterado que el TOP500 de supercomputadoras se ha actualizado y la novedad es… ninguna: todo es Linux; como lo lleva siendo desde hace casi dos años.

Linux ha conseguido el dominio absoluto en la élite de la supercomputación. En la última lista de TOP500 no ha aparecido ningún otro sistema operativo que no esté basado en Linux, cuando en anteriores ocasiones se pudieron ver algunos UNIX e incluso algún Windows.

498 out of 500 of the world's speediest supercomputers now use Linux.

SUSE technologies are helping Daimler AG, the German automotive behemoth, to migrate a large proportion of its mission-critical servers from proprietary UNIX operating systems to 'the open and flexible Linux platform'.


Con Wine o máquinas virtuales

I am delighted to announce that CodeWeavers has just released CrossOver 17.1.0 for both macOS and Linux. CrossOver 17.1.0 has many improvements to the core Windows compatibility layer and also specific enhancements for several popular applications.


we are going to learn how to get want you want from man pages easily and quickly. As you might already know, a typical man page is divided into several parts, each with a distinct heading. You might have to scroll down for quite a long time when you’re looking for a particular information on the specific flag/option. This is really inefficient and time consuming process. This is why it is important to learn to use man pages efficiently to find out what exactly you want to know.

In a world where we use the Internet for almost everything, data breaches, security vulnerabilities, malware and viruses have become so very common. For example, we remember the WannaCry ransomware that affected endless computers nationwide, including commercial systems. A piece of ransomware affecting endless computers worldwide is usually very rare, but ransomware, viruses, malware and others are not. In fact, people’s computers are infected by ransomware, viruses, malware and other types of harmful software on a daily basis — this is why anti-malware and virus protection is touted so regularly.

In the world of cyber warfare, the internet has become a vital part of every walk of life. When it comes to downloading a file from the internet to your laptop or PC, you cannot be guaranteed a 100% safety due to the existence of fast and sophisticated cyber threats. Security vulnerabilities, data breaches, viruses, and malware have become very common and result in exploitation of the originality, integrity, and authenticity of any file you download from the internet.

Most of us (including me) very often create a bootable USB device from ISO file for OS installation.
There are many applications freely available in Linux for this purpose. Even we wrote few of the utility in the past.

In this article we are going to show you, how to create a bootable Ubuntu USB flash drive from windows 10.

For most people, computers don't stay the same. Software is added, removed, and updated. Configurations are changed. Think about the changes you've made to your computer since the first time you booted it up. Now imagine making those changes to 10, 100, or 1,000 more computers. Configuration management tools are what make implemententing and enforcing these changes possible.

Use these tips and tricks to customize your Fedora installation and keep it running just the way you like it.

por supuesto dan pistas para otras distribuciones

Ubuntu 16.10 was recently released with some improvements. According to the poll 53% conducted on LinuxAndUbuntu, 53% users will upgrade to Ubuntu 16.10. But what to do next after you've upgraded to Yakkety Yak. In this article, I'll walk you through the 10 Things to do after installing Ubuntu 16.10.

The root account is the ultimate account on a Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. This account has access to all commands and files on a system with full read, write and execute permissions. It is used to perform any kind of task on a system; to create/update/access/delete other users' accounts, install/remove/upgrade software packages, and so much more.

En este artículo van a encontrar 71 capturas de pantalla que explican paso a paso cómo instalar Slackware 14.1. Dedicado a aquellos atrevidos y entusiastas que deseen incursionar en Slackware.
Este artículo puede resultar mucho más interesante para aquellos que se inicien en Slackware, ya que posee toda la información necesaria para tunear Slackware 14.1 una vez finalizada su instalación.

Udev (userspace /dev) is a Linux sub-system for dynamic device detection and management, since kernel version 2.6. It's a replacement of devfs and hotplug

One of the most important skills any Systemd newcomer can learn is how to manage their computer's services. For the purposes of this article we will discuss the basics: starting, stopping, enabling, and disabling services from the Linux command line.

Configure ordering of systemd services

Traditionally, a Linux process is either privileged (running as root) or unprivileged. Privileged processes are not subject to kernel permission checks, and thus have full power over a system. A capability is a distinct and independent privilege that can be used by a process to bypass certain permission checks. Capabilities were first introduced in Linux 2.2, and several more were added in later versions. They are usually set on executable files and are automatically granted to the process when a file with a capability is executed. Capabilities essentially divide the power of the root user into separate privileges, which improves security by limiting the access an attacker would gain by exploiting or abusing a service.

DNF o YUM Dandified es un fork del administrador de paquetes de YUM. Se introdujo en Fedora 18 y 22, ahora se ha convertido en el administrador de paquetes predeterminado para manejar los paquetes RPM.

System administration involves numerous tasks including managing users/groups and under user management, some of the minor tasks involved are adding, modifying, suspending, or deactivating user accounts, and many more.

This tutorial will help you to manually lock and unlock users account in Linux.

Add users (and customize their accounts as needed) with the useradd command.

Even though Linux is secure by design, there are many chances for the security breach. One of them is weak passwords. As a System administrator, you must provide a strong password for the users. Because, mostly system breaches are happening due to weak passwords. This tutorial describes how to set password policies such as password length, password complexity, password expiration period etc., in DEB based systems like Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and RPM based systems like RHEL, CentOS, Scientific Linux.

Hoy te voy a contar cómo escribir un script para que arranque con el sistema haciendo uso de systemd.
If you are running a Linux distro that uses Systemd, then you may find that your command in /etc/rc.local file would not run on system boot. This guide explains how to enable /etc/rc.local script to run on system startup.

The best thing about an open source operating system, such as Linux, is that you can customize it as much as you want, ranging from default applications such as file managers, music players, web browsers, and text editors etc. to more vital system components such as the kernel, display managers, and terminal consoles. You can do this simply by downloading new application software and replacing the old ones with that, or editing system components by making changes in the source code of your operating system. The display manager is one such system component that you can replace simply by running a few commands mentioned in this article.

We might have multiple web browsers installed on our Ubuntu which we might want to use for different browsing preferences. However, there is always a favorite web browser that we want to use 90 percent of the times for regular Internet use. It is best to have that browser set as the default web browser for your Ubuntu system. This default browser is the one that will open links that you click from any UI application, and this is the one that will open when you enter x-www-browser in your Ubuntu command line.

Within your Linux or macOS system, there's a file called "sudoers" which controls the deepest levels of your permissions system. It permits or denies users from gaining super-user access and holds some special preferences for sudo.

Is your Linux setup not as speedy as you'd like? Here's how to speed it up.

Have you ever wondered why your Linux computer is running slow these days? Despite high transmission speed and powerful hardware, it still takes forever in executing or processing services or applications.

If you would like to check the list of package installed from particular repository then you are in the right place to get it done.

Recently we published post about how to update packages in RHEL system using YUM. In this post we have explained how to update single or multiple packages and even all packages at once using command line. But these ways are manual tasks and needs human intervention to complete them.

Regular system maintenance is necessary to make the system healthy and function properly over a period of time. It's common for all the operating systems not only for Linux systems.

While CentOS/RHEL platforms maintain several official repositories (e.g., base, updates, contrib), they are lacking in terms of software coverage and release cycles. To bridge the gap between what is available and what is commonly needed, third-party repositories are created to serve community needs for commonly requested software packages.

One such third-party software repository for CentOS/RHEL is ELRepo (The Community Enterprise Linux Repository). ELRepo is actually one of few "community-approved" repositories due to its high maintenance quality.

Uno de los problemas actuales en el mundo GNU/Linux es la fragmentación. Fragmentación no solo en lo que a distribuciones se refiere, si no también a entornos de escritorio y por supuesto a la distribución de aplicaciones.

Así existen diferentes formatos en los que se distribuyen las aplicaciones dependiendo de la distribución que utilices. Así por ejemplo, Debian y derivados utilizan .deb, mientras que Red Hat utiliza .rpm. No son los únicos formatos, hay mas, por supuesto...

Spacewalk manages software content updates for Red Hat derived distributions such as Fedora, CentOS, and Scientific Linux, within your firewall. This is the open source version of RedHat satellite 5.We do have RedHat satellite 6 and the open source version is katello. I will show you in detail of how to configure that in detail in my next tutorial. Spacewalk is a very powerful tool when it comes to manage the infrastructure and is really stable and well build.

As I’m sure you already know, there are plenty of ways to install software in Linux: using the package management system provided by your distribution (aptitude, yum, or zypper, to name a few examples), compiling from source (though somewhat rare these days, it was the only method available during the early days of Linux), or utilizing a low level tool such as dpkg or rpm with .deb and .rpm standalone, precompiled packages, respectively.

APT is package manager which handles debian packages (.deb). Linux distributions like Ubuntu, Debian uses APT whereas Red Hat, CentOS uses YUM. Package repository is index of packages which can be used to search, view, install & update packages for Linux In this article we will be walking though steps to configure local APT repository.

This guide will show how to configure a local repository server based on Ubuntu Bionic, but it can be adapted to a previous version of Ubuntu or even to any distribution using Aptitude as the main package management system, like Debian or Mint. You might typically want to setup a local repository to save Internet bandwidth.

Today, a friend of mine asked me how to check the latest available version of a package in the Ubuntu repositories. He just wanted to know the package's version without installing it. I never knew that before, so I immediately went to askubuntu forums, and search for the answer. This is my first preferred site where I regularly search for Ubuntu related help. Luckily, someone has already asked the same question, and got the solution. I wanted to share those instructions for the OSTechNix readers, and keep it myself for future reference.

As you probably know GRUB 2 is default boot loader for most Linux operating systems. GRUB stands for GRand Unified Bootloader. GRUB boot loader is the first program that runs when the computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system Kernel. Then, the Kernel takes charge, and initializes the rest of the operating system.

In this tutorial, we will be discussing about configuring some important GRUB2 Boot Loader's settings Ubuntu 16.04 LTS desktop. I tested this guide in Ubuntu 16.04 LTS desktop, however these instructions might work on all Linux operating systems that uses GRUB 2 boot loader.

Para reinstalar grub tenemos 4 opciones, las tres primeras hacen referencia a Ubuntu y derivados de Debian, en el ultimo apartado tenemos la opción para Arch o Antergos:

Software que se usa en modo live CD y nos saca del apuro cuando necesitamos reparar grub en nuestro equipo, ya sea porque lo rompimos, o formateamos la partición con Windows y nos voló Grub, esta simple y potente herramienta nos saca del apuro.

En este artículo me gustaría mostraros una herramienta que me ha salvado la vida muchas veces (y las que quedan) cuando he tenido problemas con el grub de GNU/Linux al instalar Windows. Para quien quiera tener dual-boot con Windows y Linux, le recomiendo primero instalar Windows y luego Linux, ya que si es al revés, Windows romperá el arranque de Linux y tendréis que leer este tutorial para saber cómo arreglarlo. ¡Esperamos que eso nunca pase!

Alguna vez puede pasar que perdamos el arranque o grub de nuestro querido Ubuntu, esto puede pasar por varias razones, pero una de las más comunes suele ser que:
Tengamos instalado windows en una partición y ubuntu en otra.
De pronto windows falla y tenemos que formatearlo para instalarlo de nuevo (vaya sorpresa).

No pasa nada, cogemos nuestro disco de instalación de Ubuntu (Live-CD), que debe de ser el mismo con el que instalamos Ubuntu (para trabajar con la misma versión del grub).

Many people want to dual boot Windows 10, especially the latest version with alternative operating systems such as Ubuntu. However, dual booting, partitioning and configuring multiple operating systems can be difficult. That's why we've decided to make this guide: a complete tutorial on how to dual boot Windows 10 (with Anniversary update) and Ubuntu.

Los nuevos BIOS están protegidos contra los rootkit malware's mediante la tecnología UEFI... esto genera inconvenientes y obstáculos a la hora de instalar Linux,

El Secure Boot es una de esas funcionalidades que solo sabe qué existen cuando quieres desactivarlo. Si no, es bastante poco probable que hayas oído hablar de él alguna vez. Pues bien, Secure Boot es una opción que vino en las placas base UEFI, las que sustituyeron a la BIOS y que impedía, e impide, la ejecución de cualquier software no firmado o certificado. Esto, en teoría, impediría instalar distribuciones Linux, aunque actualmente esto no es del todo cierto.

Complemento este artículo con este enlace a una página que tiene muchísimos tipos de letra de uso gratuito y que además cuenta con una herramienta de búsqueda fantástica en la columna derecha:

There is much talk in the Linux world about the mythical "average user." There is no such thing with Linux. First off, people who use Linux usually are those who know a thing or two about computers to begin with and want to take advantage of all the choices Linux offers. Linux has been considered the place for nerds, hackers and programmers for years. These folks are NOT typical at all. Secondly, it is unfortunate but true that most advanced Linux users are completely out of touch with what an average user really is.

Choose a Linux desktop should be about finding the Linux environment that works best for your individual workflow.

Aquí hay más opciones para que quede aún más confundido... pero también los prós y contras de cada una

Cuales son las diferencias entre estos 3 forks del gnome original

9 Linux desktop environments to watch in 2016

A desktop environment is a collection of disparate components that integrate together. They bundle these components to provide a common graphical user interface with elements such as icons, toolbars, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. Additionally, most desktop environments include a set of integrated applications and utilities.

this article extends that survey with 3 other desktops: Pantheon, Trinity Desktop Environment (TDE), and LXDE. We examine their features, user experience, resources footprint, extensibility, and documentation, and compare them to the 9 desktops covered in the original article.

18 razones para usar Gnome en su cumpleaños 18

Liberado GNOME 3.22 'Karlsruhe'

Linux is both the most popular operating system and a niche end-user OS. How can that be? Follow along, my friends, and I'll tell you.

Para quienes quieran engallar su gnome Sell con widgets que facilitan la vida, he aquí el artículo donde los guían en sus primeros pasos

By default, the GNOME (Shell) overview displays applications in two views: "all", where all the applications are listed in alphabetic order, and "frequent", in which the frequently used applications are displayed.
GNOME Shell supports grouping applications in app folders, and there are two such predefined folders, "Utilities" and "Sundry". Some might not know how to create custom app folders, so here are two ways of achieving this.

Webmin is a popular, open source web-based system info and administration tool for UNIX-like systems including Linux and Windows systems. It is sort of a Linux control panel which enables you to view a summary of current system info and statistics, manage system configurations such as setting up user accounts, disk quotas, services configuration such as Apache, DNS, PHP or MySQL, file sharing and many more remotely via a web browser.

Webmin is web based interface for managing UNIX systems. It provides simple yet powerful web interface and allows you to manage entire system via this interface. It is supported on wide ranges of UNIX variants like Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD and so on.
One of the good thing about webmin is that it is released under BSD 3-clause license, which is very liberal. You are free to use it for personal as well as commercial purpose.

Gmail? Apple? The cloud? Forget 'em all—in this series, we take your e-mail back.

Get out of the office faster with these network administration cheat sheets and tools.

Los paneles para gestionar alojamientos web están a la orden del día, la mayoría de empresas utilizan CPanel o Plesk por ser de los más conocidos y más antiguos, pero estos paneles son de pago.

Not all programs available in the official or third-party repositories, so you can't install them using the regular package managers. Some times, you have to install the programs by manually compiling from source. As you may already know, when you install programs from source, the package files will be copied to multiple locations, such as /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/etc/, on the filesystem

So you have a shiny new HiDPI screen, and you want to use it with Linux. The bad news is there isn't a one-size-fits-all solution. Each desktop environment handles scaling differently. The good news is there is a way to handle HiDPI displays on each of the major Linux desktop environments.

Some times, a particular might consume more CPU usage, and affects the performance of the whole system. Since that particular process consumes more CPU, you couldn't do other tasks. You need to wait for the particular process to finish before starting a new task. Luckily, this can be now solved by an useful utility called CPULimit. As the name implies, CPULimit limits the CPU usage of a process. This can be really useful to control the batch jobs, when you don't want them to consume more CPU usage.

An RPM package contains a set of files, typically compiled software binaries, libraries, and their development source files. These files are packaged in a cpio archive format, and finally wrapped in an RPM file along with any necessary package-specific metadata.

How do I find out what files are in RPM package called gnupg using command line option? How do I list the contents of a package using rpm or yum command on CentOS/RHEL/Fedora/Red Hat/OpenSuse/Novell Suse Linux?

What are snaps and why you should use them? The Linux ecosystem has suffered from an old problem since the dawn of the concept of 'distribution', and that problem is fragmentation. One of the biggest issues that cause this fragmentation is different package formats; I can't run my .debs on my Fedora system or my .rpms on my Ubuntu machine.

Though the Mac operating system has many faults, it's at the top of its game in a lot of respects. Ease of use is the main place where Apple excels above the rest. On a Mac laptop a user can expect a wonderful, impressive touchpad experience due to how macOS implements touchpad gestures.

Bluetooth is still very important in the world today given that a wide range of devices rely on its protocol to perform various operations. Most laptops come with built-in Bluetooth adapters, but even if yours doesn't, external Bluetooth dongles are cheap and plentiful in supply.

Una herramienta para ahorrar batería del portatil

I’ve learned many simple and quick Linux tips and tricks over the past few years and decided to share one at a time via our blog. Today we are going to learn how to disable suspend and hibernation in Linux. Before we get into the topic, let us see the brief introduction to suspend and hibernate modes in Computer.

In an earlier post, we've explained CPUTool for limiting and controlling CPU utilization of any process in Linux. It allows a system administrator to interrupt execution of a process (or process group) if the CPU/system load goes beyond a defined threshold. Here, we will learn how to use a similar tool called cpulimit.

Time plays an important role in Linux servers specially when they are used in banking, stock markets and other financial sectors. If we want all our Linux servers should have the correct time, then we must configure some NTP client which will fetch correct time always from remote NTP Servers and if needed makes the required adjustments for syncing the time.

This tutorial explains how to configure a NTP (Network Time Protocol) server (using ntpd) and join it to the continuously more demanded NTP pool project.

The NTP pool project is a DNS system, that balances the load of millions of queries for time synchronization by many electronic devices, such as servers, personal computers, tablets, smartphones and more. This means, that all queries for serving an accurate real time clock synchronization, are divided between all servers of the pool.

In Linux and UNIX system services are configured using various text files located in /etc/ or /usr/local/etc/ directory tree. A typical server system could have dozens of configuration files. You can check your configuration files for syntax errors without starting the server and validate all settings. In some cases, it is possible to check the sanity of specific data/config options and directories. Text files are easier to manage remotely. You can use ssh and a text editor. If there is an error in configuration, the server may not start. It may result in a disaster. This post explains how to quickly find out a syntax error for popular servers and test configuration file for syntax errors.



MariaDB is a free and open source fork of well known MySQL database management server software, developed by the brains behind MySQL, it's envisioned to remain free/open source.

In this tutorial, we will show you how to install MariaDB 10.1 stable version in the most widely used versions of RHEL/CentOS and Fedora distributions.

For your information, Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 7.0 switched from supporting MySQL to MariaDB as the default database management system.

In this post, we are going to learn about the operating system kernel parameters, shared memory, and semaphores.

How to setup HAProxy as Load Balancer for MariaDB on CentOS 7

LAMP is an acronym for four open source software frequently used to develop the web applications (such as forums, blogs, and business sites):

In this guide, you will learn how to install LEMP stack on an Arch Linux server. LEMP is a popular stack used by web developers for testing and hosting websites and applications. LEMP is an abbreviation for Linux Nginx (pronounced as Engine X) MariaDB / MySQL and PHP.

As you may know already, LAMP stack is a popular, open source web development platform that can be used to run and deploy dynamic websites and web-based applications. Typically, LAMP stack consists of Apache webserver, MariaDB/MySQL databases, PHP/Python/Perl programming languages. LAMP is the acronym of Linux, MariaDB/MYSQL, PHP/Python/Perl. In this tutorial, we will see how to install Apache, MariaDB, PHP (LAMP stack) in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS server.

If you want to set up a LAMP server, you're in the right place. This article takes you through the process from installation to the creation of your first working PHP file.

This tutorial explains how to use the command line to create and manage MySQL or MariaDB databases and users. MySQL is the most popular open-source relational database management system. MySQL server allows us to create numerous users and databases and grant appropriate privileges, so that users can access and manage databases.

MySQL is arguably one of the leading and widely used opensource database management systems. It's the preferred relational database management system of choice in most web hosting companies and other cloud providers.

Have you ever wanted to get a list of all users in your MySQL server? There are commands to show databases and tables, but there is no MySQL "show users" command.

I'm a big fan of Redis, a fast in-memory database that persists on disk, and I've previously written a Guide to Using Redis with Node.js which provides a fairly comprehensive overview of using Redis from the command line and using it in conjunction with Node.js.


Un artículo que no solo muestra las mejores distribuciones sino que también da claridad sobre lo que es y no es Linux

Como editor que escribe en blogs sobre Linux, en mi día a día tengo que probar muchos sistemas operativos. Lo que suelo hacer es descargar una ISO del sistema en cuestión y o bien crearme un Live USB o abrir la ISO en Virtualbox, dependiendo de mis necesidades. Pero, ¿y si no hiciera falta descargar nada? ¿Y si somos usuarios inexpertos? En estos casos podemos usar Remmina, la herramienta de escritorio remoto que viene instalada por defecto en Ubuntu

El mundo de las distribuciones GNU/Linux es un mundo lleno de sistemas operativos de código abierto y en su mayoría gratuitos, todos ellos partiendo de la base de un mismo núcleo. Si estás pensando en darle una oportunidad a alguno de ellos, aquí tienes 47 distribuciones GNU/Linux para que encuentres la que más se adapta a lo que estás buscando.

This test should help you to find the suitable Linux Distribution.
The test will ask you simple questions to include the suitable distributions

  • You can leave questions unanswered
  • You can get the result at any time
  • You can answer the questions in the order you want
  • The amount of answers you give increases the quality of the result

When you move from "that other operating system" to Linux, you're going to find that in most ways you'll be in familiar territory. However, that's not always the case. We sometimes do things a little differently around here.

surgió un debate que lleva rondando mucho tiempo la red. Se trata del de hasta qué punto hay demasiadas distribuciones y de qué manera esto puede beneficiar o lastrar la adopción de esta familia de sistemas operativos en el escritorio.

FreeBSD 11.1 Installation Guide

FreeBSD is a free, powerful, robust, flexible and stable Open Source operating system based on UNIX which is designed with security and speed in mind.

FreeBSD can operate on a large variety of modern CPU architectures and can power servers, desktops and some kind of custom embedded systems, the most notable being Raspberry PI SBC. As in Linux case, FreeBSD comes with a large collection of pre-compiled software packages, more than 20,000 packages, that can be simply installed in the system from their repositories, called "Ports".

If you want to run a clone of Microsoft Windows to escape the drama of upgrading to Windows 10, try ReactOS -- but do not expect it to be a fully functional replacement any time soon.

ReactOS is a free, open source operating system built on the design principles found in the Windows NT architecture.

Just remember that ReactOS is a Windows clone and not a Linux distro with a Windows-like desktop shell. It does not run Linux apps.

The release last month of version 0.4.1 brings this unique open source project one step closer to its goal of providing users full compatibility with Windows software on a free OS made almost from scratch.

IPFire is a Linux distribution that is focused on delivering a starting point for a router and firewall solution with a web interface. It can be made to do a whole lot, but it may not be the best fit for the needs of a home network.

I'll not go in to performance testing at all in this review as this will vary based on your hardware. You can use any x86_64 (or armv5tel) system with at least two Ethernet ports. You may need a third Ethernet port if you want to use an external wireless access point rather than configuring the box you want to use with IPFire as your access point.

Here's the scenario: we have a Redis server running on a Raspberry Pi and we want to make it available to other machines on a network rather than just using the Redis server in a localhost context. We have already added a password to the Redis server instance; however, due to the high-performance capabilities of Redis, it is possible for outside systems to barrage it with massive number of passwords in parallel to break in. It's time for a firewall.

This will give you a comparison between RHEL8 vs RHEL7 vs RHEL6.

How to Set Up Private DNS Servers with BIND on Ubuntu 16.04. BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) is the most used DNS software over the Internet. The BIND package is available for all Linux distributions, which makes the installation simple and straightforward. In today's article we will show you how to install, configure and administer BIND 9 as a private DNS server on a Ubuntu 16.04 VPS, in few steps.

Linux is a free operating system, and Puppy Linux is a special build of Linux meant to make computing easy and fast.

Puppy Linux enables you to save money while doing more work, even allowing you to do magic by recovering data from destroyed PCs or by removing malware from Windows. See these example articles: recovering files from Windows and safe Internet banking with Puppy Linux.

With Puppy Linux, you can carry your programs and data anywhere.

  • Easy - Just use a CD or USB flash to boot a PC. Puppy Linux is downloadable as ISO, an image that can be burned to CD or DVD.
  • Fast - Because Puppy is small, it can live in your PC's memory and be ready to quickly execute your commands, whereas in other systems, programs are first read from drive storage before being executed.
  • Save Money - Even if your PC has no hard disk (ex, broken hard disk), you can still boot Puppy via CD or USB and continue working. Old PCs that no longer work with new systems will still work good-as-new with Puppy.
  • Do More - Puppy boots in less than a minute, even in old PCs, and it does not require antivirus software. Administering Puppy is quick and minimal. With Puppy, you just have to take care of your data, which you can easily save to USB flash (Then forget about your operating system!). Your data can be read by other computers.
  • Do Magic -Help your friends suffering from computer malware by booting Puppy and removing malware from their PC (use antivirus that is built-in or can be installed in Puppy). Example - bad Autorun.inf is easily removed by Puppy (Just delete it as well as its companion exe program). If your friend thinks that she has lost data from her corrupted hard disk, boot Puppy and try saving her data!
  • Carry Anywhere (Portable) - Because Puppy is able to live in CD/DVD or USB flash, as well as save data to these same devices, you can carry your programs and data with you.

El binomio niños-tecnología suele dar pie a debates muy interesantes. Por un lado están los que defienden que los peques no deberían tener acceso a ordenadores y gadgets de ningún tipo hasta haber alcanzado una cierta edad; por otro lado, quienes piensan que cuanto antes se familiaricen con la tecnología, mejor.

It is the beginning of 2017 which can mean only one thing. It is time to look back at the top 10 Linux distributions of 2016 in order to analyse their suitability for the everyday Linux user.

It has been a long time since I last reviewed openSUSE. I don't think it is quite as long as the numbering system suggests but it has been about 3 years.
There are 2 versions of openSUSE available via their website:
  • Leap
  • Tumbleweed
The Tumbleweed version is a rolling release distribution whereas the Leap version follows a frequent 6 monthly release schedule.
Today I will be reviewing openSUSE Leap 42.2.

Selecting the best Linux distro is a matter of personal choice, based on your daily work flow. Two Linux experts list their personal picks for best distro and discuss each distro's merits and challenges.

En este artículo van a encontrar 71 capturas de pantalla que explican paso a paso cómo instalar Slackware 14.1. Dedicado a aquellos atrevidos y entusiastas que deseen incursionar en Slackware.

No voy a convencer a nadie de utilizar Slackware. Sólo voy a decir que es un sistema para usuarios avanzados, que deseen un sistema estable y robusto, para los amantes de lo simple. No les voy a mentir diciendo que es fácil de usar. Sí, es fácil de usar, pero no es fácil instalar y administrar software. Al menos no es fácil para usuarios novicios ni impacientes.

The key question is: "What do you want to use Linux for?" Once you know that, everything else is easy.

The company hasn't released a new version of Mandriva Linux since 2011 and laid off most of its developers years ago, but it's now been completely liquidated. That doesn't mean Mandriva's vision for Linux is dead, however-the Mageia project, founded by former Mandriva developers, picked up the torch years ago and has been carrying it ever since. It's not the only successor to Mandriva, either. 

When you want to install new software or updates to already installed Ubuntu software, by default Ubuntu provides four different software repositories to get it from. These repositories are Main, Universe, Restricted, and Multiverse. Maybe you have wondered what's behind their cryptic names. Here is what each of these represent.

Debian es una excelente distribución de Linux, especialmente para servidores. También es una gran distribución que se puede ejecutar en un ordenador de sobremesa o portátil normal. Rara vez se encuentra un error en este sistema operativo, y los paquetes se integran excepcionalmente bien entre sí.

PPA stands for Personal Package Archive, and in reality, it's no different from any other Debian/Ubuntu repository. When you add a PPA to your Ubuntu system, you're adding another software repository for your package manager to pull from.

An in-depth article that covers almost all the questions around using PPA in Ubuntu and other Linux distributions.

Arch Linux is very unique, compare with other Linux distributions because it doesn't comes with live ISO & Desktop Environment. Arch gives you the full freedom to customize the installation as you wish, When you boot up, you'll be end-up with a terminal and most of the people panic here because they don't want to build from scratch.

El artículo se llama diferente, pero me gustaría que leyeran el capítulo que se llama "You-yes, you-can make your own Linux distro"

Arne Exton is informing the Linux community today that the latest release of his ExTiX "The Ultimate Linux System" operating system ships with Refracta Tools pre-installed to let users create their own Ubuntu/ExTiX-based distro.

Refracta Tools is installed by default ExTiX 17.5 Build 170508, which you can download right now from our website, and it can be used to easily build your own GNU/Linux distribution, with a predefined set of packages and custom settings that suit your needs.

One of Linux's biggest selling points has always been its ability to trim down and use as few resources as possible. Linux can bring old computers back from the dead and make them fully functional again with less resource intensive systems.

Lástima, No volvieron a trabajar en ella y está desactualizada.
¿Eres de las que lleva un pendrive en el llavero o en un colgante de tela para tenerlo siempre a mano? ¿Has pensado que sería ideal tener instalado en él alguna distribución de GNU/Linux ante cualquier emergencia? Entonces tal vez deberías de explorar una interesante opción para cuando necesites llevar GNU/Linux a cualquier parte sin necesidad de instalarlo.
En Rincón de la tecnología te traemos esta interesante distro de Linux llamada Porteus, que como dice el título, es portable. Antes que nada debemos decir que esta distribución del pingüino pesa nada mas que 300Mb instalada y esa es una de las razones por las cuales es más que interesante
En la entrada anterior, te enseñamos lo que es Porteus, su funcionamiento básico y algunas características propias. Esta vez vamos a enseñarte como descargar la distro y como armar un pendrive booteable
Porteus es parte del selecto grupo de distribuciones Linux diseñada para ser rápida y portátil. Comenzó como una versión de punta de Slax, llamada ‘Slax remix’. Posteriormente, cambió de nombre y ahora se llama Porteus (en honor al Dios del mar, Proteus).

Linux es conocido por brindar una solución para cualquier necesidad. Si tienes una computadora de escritorio o portátil no tan reciente (antigua), existen distribuciones GNU/Linux ligeras que pueden ser instaladas en dicho equipos y disfrutar de una experiencia informática sin retrasos.

We've already reviewed the Linux Lite 3.6 distro some time back and even concluded that it is an excellent distro for any beginner to start with linux and then stay on forever. With a lot of wow factors in that distro, Linux Lite has come up with a more enhanced version in Linux Lite 3.6. And with the 3.6 release, Linux Lite has introduced some major changes since the release of 3.4. Let's look at all the changes and also a step by step installation guide to install Linux Lite 3.6 in your system.

Gentoo is one of the most esoteric distributions out there. It offers customizability at the expense of user-friendliness. It does, however, shed light on the internal workings of a Linux installation. To experiment with a Gentoo environment inside a VM is probably a great way to start learning about operating systems in general.

Bueno, ya nos estamos acercando, prefiero escribir rápido estos pequeños posts para que no se molesten conmigo por no estar escribiendo la guía en estos instantes :p , pero deben comprender que hay tanto por explicar en Gentoo que dejarles el script no me serviría de mucho si después no pueden controlar todo ese poder.

Bueno, este es uno más de esos puntos que no puedo pasar por alto antes de comenzar la guía de instalación de Gentoo  sé que ya muchos estarán esperando con ansias este post, y perdón por hacerlos esperar, pero también considero que no explicar esto atenta contra mi status de usuario Gentoo  Sin más que mencionar, comencemos.

Wow, veo una gran acogida a mis pequeños aportes y me motiva mucho más a poder seguir compartiendo con esta bella comunidad. Ya sé que he prometido una guía de menos de 20 pasos, pero tendrán que comer ansias un poco todavía… Es que sencillamente no puedo empezar un tutorial de Gentoo sin detenerme a hablar de su corazón y la esencia misma de todo su poder Portage, su gestor de paquetes. Además, como fiel usuario de Gentoo creo yo que es mejor entender antes que repetir, y con esto solo quiero decir que antes de empezar una guía sencilla como copiar un script (repetir), es mejor saber lo que hacemos para poder después escribir el script. Como el conocido refrán:

El Administrador de Paquetes (RPM) es un potente sistema de gestión de paquetes utilizado por Red Hat Linux y sus derivados, tales como CentOS y Fedora. RPM también se refiere a las rpm y de comando .rpm formato de archivo. Un Paquete RPM consta de un archivo de metadatos y archivos, incluyendo información tal como las dependencias y ubicación de instalación.

Rpm is one of the most advanced Gnu/Linux package manager. Created by Red Hat, it is used in many distributions, as for example Fedora and derivatives like Rhel and CentOS.

Arch Linux is among the most popular Linux distributions and it was first released in 2002, being spear-headed by Aaron Grifin. Yes, it aims to provide simplicity, minimalism, and elegance to the OS user but its target audience is not the faint of hearts. Arch encourages community involvement and a user is expected to put in some effort to better comprehend how the system operates.

Anarchy Linux is a free and open source package containing a set of automated scripts designed to facilitate the easier installation and configuration setup of Arch Linux.

Are you a distro-hopper who likes to try new Linux OSs every few days? If so, I have something for you. Say hello to Sysget, a front-end for popular package managers in Unix-like operating systems. You don't need to learn about every package managers to do basic stuffs like installing, updating, upgrading and removing packages. You just need to remember one syntax for every package manager on every Unix-like operating systems. Sysget is a wrapper script for package managers and it is written in C++. The source code is freely available on GitHub.

If you are a gamer or you read gaming news at all, you will probably know of SteamOS. It is a new operating system that Valve is working on for dedicated gaming computers. The Operating system is based on Linux and has a Debian x64 architecture as its base. While this is really cool and I am personally looking forward to the day when I we can use this OS for serious gaming, it is still in the Beta development stages.


Cada vez es más común entre diseñadores y bloggers utilizar imágenes bajo la licencia Creative Commons, pero buscar imágenes de este tipo puede ser un tanto tedioso usando Google Imagénes o Flickr, ya que estos no ofrecen la opción de filtrar elementos que estén bajo dicha licencia. El nuevo motor de búsqueda de Creative Commons, en cambio, ha sido concebido para facilitar la búsqueda de todo el material que sí se encuentra bajo esta licencia.

The First Contributions project bridges the gap between projects looking for new contributors and those trying to get started in open source.

So you've been a part of the huge collaborative Linux community and have learned or benefited a lot from them. And now you hear about contributing back some love to the community through various means: developing software, maintaining, documenting, sharing, etc Maybe you are stuck figuring out at which to choose right now. Or have no idea at all where to start.

Without data, you're just a person with an opinion

Jack Wallen, who has been using Linux for 20 years, shares a recent experience using the Windows platform and explains why it put the OS debate into perspective.

Chef developers recently pressured Chef Software into ending their contract with ICE. What started this was open-source developer Seth Vargo pulling his open-source project, Chef Sugar, from the Chef DevOps program. This has lead to people, such as Coraline Ada Ehmke, best known for her Contributor Covenant, which was adopted by Linux, to propose an open-source license that requires its users to act morally.

Chef developers and executives fought over the company's contract with US Immigrations and Customs Enforcement. Faced with this, Chef Software's management first resisted, but it has now given in to demands to start severing ties with ICE.

Coding program gives low-income students the skills, confidence, and knowledge to break free from economic and societal disadvantages.

This 12-step checklist will ensure a successful launch

Uno de los libros que más me han llamado la atención sobre este tema es sin lugar a dudas Hacking: The Art of Exploitation, de Jon Erickson. Es una joya para todo aquel que quiera sumergirse en este mundo de los verdaderos hackers. Y tal como está en el libro, me permitiré tomar la primer pregunta que explotó mi mente al momento de leerlo.

I might be wrong, but I get the impression that my Windows friends - which would be most of the people I see on a daily basis - think of Linux as this incredibly geeky system from another planet. I think most of them don't understand why I use it and why I don't just stay in the known world - which to them would be Windows. Paradoxically, however, they do get why some folks use Macs.

Chris Aniszczyk, la cabeza de Open Source at Twitter nos explica qué está haciéndo Twitter por el (Free and Open Source Software)

Chris DiBona is the Director of Open Source for Google. He is also one of the great champions of open source, dating back to when he first fell in love with Linux at his university.

Tras la presentación de James Pearse en OSCON Nicole Engard publica este artículo donde resume las respuestas encontradas a la gran pregunta ¿Por qué Facebook hace OpenSource?

Undoubtedly, your company uses open source software. But the powers that be might express reluctance when developers want to create or maintain projects on company time. Here is a roadmap to help you convince them otherwise—starting with an internal open source project office.

Analizo un exitoso proyecto de software libre (fetchmail), que fue realizado para probar deliberadamente algunas sorprendentes ideas sobre la ingeniería de software sugeridas por la historia de Linux. Discuto estas teorías en términos de dos estilos de desarrollo fundamentalmente opuestos: el modelo catedral de la mayoría de los fabricantes de software comercial contra el modelo bazar del mundo Linux. Demuestro que estos modelos parten de puntos de vista contrapuestos acerca de la naturaleza de la tarea de depuración del software. Posteriormente, hago una argumentación, a partir de la experiencia de Linux, de la siguiente sentencia: "si se tienen las miradas suficientes, todas las pulgas saltarán a la vista". Al final, sugiero algunas fructíferas analogías con otros sistemas autoregulados de agentes egoistas, y concluyo con una somera exploración de las implicaciones que pude tener este enfoque en el futuro del software.

Documentos Halloween es el nombre con el que se conoce fuera de Microsoft a una serie de memorandos confidenciales (admitidos como reales por Microsoft) sobre las estrategias potenciales de la compañía en 1998 acerca de los programas de código abierto, y GNU/Linux en particular.

Diversos sectores critican el momento de presentar para discusión un proyecto impulsado por la agenda comercial del país y que tiene implicaciones que van más allá de los compromisos del TLC con EE. UU.

Aseguró que la plenaria en la que se debatía el proyecto fue una trampa. Claudia López y su polémico tuit sobre la Ley Lleras

"Hace tres años, a través de un grupo de Facebook en el que participábamos interesados en el estudio de los anfibios y reptiles, conocí una tesis de maestría que era fundamental para identificar algunos anfibios que encontraba en las visitas de campo que realizaba a algunas áreas protegidas del país. Para acceder a esta información, era necesario viajar a Bogotá y consultar en la biblioteca, pero pensé que era algo que le interesaba a otros más allá del grupo así que lo compartí por Internet. Aunque no fui el primero ni el único (el documento se encontraba en varios sitios ya) por compartir conocimiento respetando la autoría de quien hizo la investigación, hoy su autor adelanta un proceso penal en mi contra por "violación de derechos patrimoniales de autor y derechos conexos", me dicen que esto puede suponer de 4 a 8 años de cárcel para mí."

"lo sucedido (...) es la comisión de un delito y la violación de un derecho fundamental como lo es la intimidad personal"[22]; (ii) "el material publicado y que en efecto se trata de imágenes propias, se produjeron en virtud de la relación con mi esposa y madre de mi hija, como una práctica del total resorte de nuestra vida íntima y privada, y que nadie, ni siquiera pretendiendo argumentar libertad de información puede publicar"[23]; (iii) "pretender penarme por las conductas que infundadamente se me señala, sería tan absurdo, inconsecuente y contrario a derecho como penar a alguien en razón de su orientación sexual"[24]; y (iv)"Reitero y me mantengo en que no he hecho nada ilegal ni que contraríe mis funciones y desempeño como Embajador Regional de la Estrategia En TIC Confío"

Vim has existed for 23 years, and it's been used to write millions upon millions of lines of code. We caught up with Bram Moolenaar, creator of the text editor, to ask him about what he's learned building it over the past two decades, his thoughts on NeoVim and more. In addition, we posed some questions suggested by the Vim hive mind on Reddit. Check out Bram's answers below.

Red Hat is adding a hosted IDE, microservices foundations, and support for Amazon Web Services in hybrid clouds

YouTube es una plataforma diseñada para permitirnos reproducir todo tipo de vídeos en streaming desde su web. Sin embargo, hay muchos usuarios que, desde sus inicios, buscan la manera de descargar los vídeos para poder verlos sin conexión, o simplemente guardar una copia en su PC. A Google nunca le ha gustado que se haga esto con su red social, y aunque siempre ha sido reacio a ello, la lucha contra este movimiento nunca ha sido muy asidua. Hasta que este fin de semana pasado llevó a cabo un movimiento maestro y bloqueó uno de los scripts más usados para esta tarea: YouTube-dl.

La comunidad se defiende cuando tiene que hacerlo, como cuando utilizan software libre como publicidad engañosa

A top Linux security programmer, Matthew Garrett, has discovered Linux in Symantec's Norton Core Router. It appears Symantec has violated the GPL by not releasing its router's source code.

La Comisión Federal de Comunicaciones de Estados Unidos (FCC) acaba de votar con un 3 a 2 acabar con las normas que protegen la neutralidad de la red, y que permiten que todos los servicios compitan en igualdad de condiciones. Se trata de la puesta en marcha de un plan presentado por Ajit Pai, presidente del organismo.

 EEUU se prepara ya para un nuevo paradigma. La neutralidad de la Red ha perdido y las empresas han ganado. La manera de entender las comunicaciones y las nuevas relaciones que se establezcan entre usuarios y proveedores de Internet a partir de este jueves se darán en un marco injusto y viciado por el mercado, los poderes económicos y los intereses políticos. Internet ya nunca volverá a ser como era.

Revocar las reglas sobre neutralidad de la red sólo apresura el final de esta infraestructura de comunicación.

A Red Hat- and Google-centric aggregator of software patents adds Microsoft as a member even though Microsoft continues to arm and fund patent trolls; the main/net effect of this move appears to be promotion of "Azure IP Advantage" (protection from Microsoft's trolls as long as one pays Microsoft monthly fees)

Microsoft nowadays sells its hosting as a 'protection' racket and it has euphemistically called it "Azure IP Advantage"

A roundup of patent trolls' actions in the United States; Microsoft is connected to a notably high number of these

Unos años atrás nos llegan a decir que Microsoft hace de código abierto su cartera de patentes y no nos lo creeríamos. Sin embargo, la empresa acaba de sumarse al consorcio Open Invention Network (OIN) y ahora más de 60.000 patentes que tienen en su cartera podrán ser utilizadas libremente por el resto de integrantes. Un paso más que demuestra el amor de Microsoft hacia Linux y el Open Source.

The story of Huawei gets more complicated, even though software patents are losing their teeth and notorious patent trolls are altogether losing their patents

Lo más importante de éste artículo son los enlaces, por favor síganlos

Hint: It has to do with which community you're contributing to. Here's a full explanation.

Home Automation software is software that lets you control and monitor common home and office appliances using a computer. Home automation used to be confined to turning on and off lights and appliances. But the possibilities are much wider letting users build a wireless network, automate TV and hi-fi, monitor pets when you are away, set up an answering system, create a weather station - integrating an abundance of different home automation technologies into one.

Alberto Morgante, Cloud Computing Innovation Engineer at BBVA, talks about the current boom in open source. One of the key benefits of these tools, he says, is their capacity to streamline processes.

Open source offers some compelling benefits for businesses large and small -- but you might be surprised at some of the ways it's being used.

25 años después Microsoft comienza a entender

When evaluating whether to adopt an open source solution in a software project for the first time, here are some basic questions you should ask

Linux ha estado en ascenso desde que el sistema operativo de código abierto fue lanzado, y se ha mejorado y perfeccionado con el tiempo de manera que una distribución típica es ahora un paquete pulido y completo que comprende prácticamente todo lo que necesita el usuario, ya sea para un servidor o sistema personal.

I've been supporting student participation in humanitarian free and open source software (H) projects for over a decade. I've seen students get motivated and excited by working in a professional community while they learn and mature professionally. Out of the many reasons for supporting student participation in open source, here are five of the most compelling reasons.

Tenemos el agrado de anunciar que el gigante de las telecomunicaciones AT&T, se une a la Linux Foundation como miembro Platinum. Esta organización se une a la categoría de miembros más alta de la fundación, donde comparte lugar con empresas como IBM, Microsoft, Huawei entre otros.

When Microsoft ended support for Windows XP last year, most of us moved on to Windows 7 or 8, but not the nation of China. XP was still in wide use around the country and upgrading was an expensive proposition.

In a fit of pique, the Chinese government actually banned Windows 8 in retaliation to the end of XP support, which was the ultimate example of cutting off your nose to spite your face.

Espero que lo que les enseñé haya sido de provecho y aquí tienen éste enlace para seguir aprendiendo.

Conseguir trabajo es complicado, sobre todo en tecnología, donde los puestos son altamente competitivos. Sin embargo, hace poco, el ministerio de las TIC aseguró que hay una deficiencia en mano de obra calificada para trabajar en las empresas de tecnología del país. Ahora, según ReadWrite, también hay un déficit de personas con conocimiento en Linux. La Fundación Linux anunció la creación de un programa de certificación para educar y mejorar la oferta de personas especializadas en esta plataforma.

A pesar de que Linux no sea un sistema tan popular para el consumidor, muchas empresas tienen sus servidores sobre la plataforma del pingüino. De acuerdo con IDC, los servidores Linux representan el 28,5% de los ingresos de ese mercado. Esto representa un incremento de 4,6 puntos porcentuales frente al estudio del cuartro trimestre de 2012.

Un estudio de la fundación encontró que el 77% de los encargados de las contrataciones tiene entre sus listas de prioridad a personas con talento en Linux. Además, encontraron que el 86% de las personas que tienen conocimiento en Linux vieron más oportunidades en su carrera.

El conocimiento sobre esta plataforma es clave para el funcionamiento de internet. Muchas de las compañías más grandes del mercado usan este tipo de servidores. Google, Amazon y Yahoo!, por ejemplo, tienen sus datos en servidores que corren Linux.

Además, el sistema está teniendo más calado que antes entre los consumidores finales. Si muchos no lo saben, Android, el sistema operativo móvil más popular del mundo, tiene entre sus entrañas la creación de Linus Torvalds. Lo mismo pasa con los dispositivos Kindle de Amazon.

El nuevo sistema de certificación tiene un curso en línea y después un examen que vale 300 dólares. Hay dos certificaciones: administrador de sistemas Linux e ingeniero Linux.

Entonces, consiga trabajo estudiando Linux. Parece ser una ecuación muy sencilla.

20.08.14 @ 17:43 p.m.

Cómo se beneficia una empresa al usar

La oficina de inteligencia federal de USA solicita a los fabricantes de software poner puertas traseras con fines confusos que pueden usarse también ilegalmente

Windows 8 ha demostrado tener puertas traseras que vulneran la seguridad de la información, tanto que del gobierno alemán se ha filtrado este documento que claramente dice:

  • "Microsoft decides what software can run on the computer, and the user cannot influence it in any way."
  • "It would be easy for Microsoft or chip manufacturers to pass the backdoor keys to the NSA and allow it to control those computers."
  • "The security objectives of 'confidentiality' and 'integrity' can no longer be guaranteed."
  • "The use of 'Trusted Computing' technology in this form ... is unacceptable for the Federal Administration and for operators of critical infrastructure."

Por alguna razón lo borraron, pero aquí está otro artículo de soporte a lo mismo:

Un foro sobre la actualidad y futuro del OpenSource en Colombia

Página 35 de la revista ComputerWorld, noviembre de 2014

The German city of Munich, famous for rejecting Windows in favour of using Linux on its PCs, will return to Windows after the move won the backing of the full council.

Hay varias empresas de éxito, como Red Hat, que han conseguido vivir (muy bien) del 'software' libre.

Blocks, un dispositivo que funciona en Linux, esta diseñado para permitirnos augurar lo que viene en el futuro.

Adoptar - Añadir - Aniquilar o Embrace - Extend - Extinguish

Debido a la investigación realizada por el caso anti-monopolio Comes vs Microsoft, se ha publicado una impresionante cantidad de correos electrónicos entre Bill Gates, Steve Ballmer, Jim Allchin y otros importantes miembros de la compañía, en donde se puede ver cómo manejaron las distintas amenazas a su imperio a través de los años.

Si por acá llueve, por allá no escampa
La educación pública se encuentra actualmente (en situación pos-pandémica o pre-apocalipsis total) ante una problemática que muchas personas verán como oportunidad, pero porque va con trampa.

What does open source software mean? When you are explaining it to someone else, how do you convey the value and essense of open source without reinventing it? There have been many hard won lessons in open source since the phrase was first coined in 1997, and we should not forget those lessons.

To help with that, I've collected 12 memes that are meaningful to me to help share the history, set the stage, and provide context for what open source software is and what it means to the software industry at large.

Free and open source software (FOSS) has made huge inroads over the last decade or two, especially in the corporate world. Even so, some legal departments can be wary of their organizations using or contributing to .

Desde hace tiempo que los gobiernos discuten la adopción del software libre dentro de la administración pública. Ahora el gobierno de India se suma a esta tendencia. De acuerdo con el sitio CNN-IBN News, el Ministerio de Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación ha emitido una nueva política que hace obligatorio el uso del software libre en las oficinas gubernamentales de todo el país.

Esta medida permitirá que el gobierno pueda estudiar y modificar el software que utiliza, algo que no es posible hacer con una licencia de software privativo. La política aplicará para todas las dependencias del gobierno central, mientras que las oficinas estatales son bienvenidas a adoptar la iniciativa.

Para evitar incompatibilidades con formatos de archivo emitidos por software privativo (doc, docx, xls, xlsx, ppt, pptx) que cambian como veletas como estrategia de mercadeo, el gobierno británico adopta los formatos abiertos para garantizar compatibilidad.

The Italian military is transitioning to LibreOffice and the Open Document Format (ODF). The Ministry of Defense will over the next year-and-a-half install this suite of office productivity tools on some 150,000 PC workstations - making it Europe's second largest LibreOffice implementation. The switch was announced on 15 September by the LibreItalia Association.

Las experiencias gubernamentales que ha tenido RedHat montando proyectos OpenSource en ayuntamientos

Linus Torvalds es el creador de Linux, un sistema operativo que en términos reales es UNIX, y que ha tenido una enorme influencia en el desarrollo del cómputo moderno, además de ser un proyecto de código abierto y libre, lo cual lo hace mucho más interesante.

Linus Torvalds se retira temporalmente del Kernel Linux para trabajar en sus habilidades blandas (relaciones interpersonales) debido a su comportamiento agresivo ampliamente reconocido que ha costado que varios desarrolladores se retiren por los maltratos, también ofrece disculpa pública por su comportamiento.

At the Open Source Summit, Linus Torvalds the creator of Linux talked about the Linux development process, security challenges and why Linux will prosper even after he no longer has a guiding hand on the operating system.

Un magnífico proyecto, de extrema utilidad, al que fue muy difícil llegar.

Todos conocemos a Linus Torvalds, por muchos (no por todos) considerado el padre de Linux. La verdad es que no sigo mucho sus declaraciones, entre otras cosas porque no es muy dado a manifestaciones públicas (mucho menos que el amigo Richard Stallman) pero me he tropezado con este artículo en MuyComputer y la verdad es que subrayo casi todo lo que dice (quizás con algo menos de vehemencia). Eso va por los "pro-Microsoft" también: chicos, en el fondo estamos jugando a lo mismo...

If it wasn't for Linux setting the bar, would Windows users still be dealing with the "blue screen of death" several times a day?

Munich's KDE distribution LiMux has been certified to meet the international usability standard ISO 9241. The use of KDE 3 as an "effective, efficient and satisfactory" working environment is named as a decisive factor for passing the certification. Read on for more details.

The city has now migrated over 80 percent of its 15,500 desktops to LiMux, it's own distribution of Linux.

El gobierno de turno amenaza con echar para atrás la decisión de migrar a Linux.  Gracias a esto hay muchos proyectos que entran a participar en este juego de decisiones.

Si bien los rumores corren de un posible retroceso en la migracion win2lnx, el alcalde atendió el clamor de la comunidad técnica y está recapacitacitando su decisión.  Además desde la misma implantación del proyecto se blindó para prevenir que los alcaldes tomen decisiones arbitrarias.

Councillors from Munich's conservative CSU party have called the custom version of Ubuntu used by the city "cumbersome to use" and "of very limited use"

Last week's news of Munich considering a switch back to Windows has been clarified or rebuked today. Reports from DebConf15 refute the claims from certain city councillors complaining about the Ubuntu-based Linux.

Años de trabajo y millones de euros para tener LiMux en miles de computadores, y un par de consejales están pidiendo Windows para poder usar Skype y MS-Office (sin tener en cuenta que Skype funciona muy bien en Linux y que LibreOffice es un magnífico sustituto, para lo que un consejal hace)

Sin embargo, los periodistas, sin noticias en agosto exageran un poco la nota para volverla amarillista.

Al final pasó. Tras años de "invitaciones" por parte Microsoft para que la capital de Baviera, Múnich, abandonara el proyecto LiMux para volver a sus soluciones, se puede decir que ya está empezando a suceder. La coalición gobernante, compuesta por la CSU (marca de la CDU de Angela Merkel en Baviera) y el SPD (Partido Socialdemócrata de Alemania), ha presentado una propuesta para crear un proyecto para el desarrollo de una nueva base de clientes Windows que tendría que terminar en 2020, todo con la intención de implementar en la Administración "productos estándares del mercado".

GitHub es una organización que apoya al software libre, recientemente crearon un cargo en su organización orientado a mercadear el openSource en el gobierno de USA.

La tecnológica y la administración del presidente estadounidense se enfrentaron en el Tribunal Supremo por el interés del gobierno de acceder a correos almacenados en el extranjero.

Microsoft's relentless attacks on GNU/Linux and Free software in general (even if it runs on Windows) are so evident that claims of 'love' remain laughable at best (if not infuriating)

Microsoft asocia a Linux con el cáncer

Summary: Microsoft reminds us that it is still engaging in patent extortion by signing yet another patent settlement deal which requires surrendering to Microsoft

A quick look at the past week's news and clues about Microsoft's (and its broad army of patent trolls) strategy for taxing Linux, or imposing bundling at zero cost (to Microsoft)

This is a manifesto that any private organization can use to frame their collaboration transformation. Take a read and let me know what you think.

I presented a talk at the Linux TODO group using this article as my material. For those of you who are not familiar with the TODO group, they support open source leadership at commercial companies. It is important to lean on each other because legal, security, and other shared knowledge is so important for the open source community to move forward. This is especially true because we need to represent both the commercial and public community best interests.

More than a buzzword, "open" is our best means for creating new and powerful modes of collaboration.

What's the difference between OpenDocument and Microsoft's "OpenXML"?

This article is a technical comparison between ODF and OXML. We try to show you how the design of these formats affect interoperability. After all, interoperability is the purpose of open standards.

Both the Linux kernel and the macOS kernel are UNIX-based. Some people say that macOS is "linux", some say that both are compatible due to similarities between commands and file system hierarchy. Today I want to show a little of both, showing the differences and similarities between Linux Kernel & Mac kernel like I mentioned in previous Linux kernel articles.

El gigante de Cupertino ha decidido liberar el kernel de iOS y macOS en el repositorio GitHub, un viejo conocido de los amantes del software libre que como sabemos recoge una gran cantidad de proyectos de este tipo.

La suite de ofimática openoffice gracias a ser software libre compatible con sistemas operativos como MS-Windows, Linux, UNIX y Mac OS es la herramienta que permite a una organización probar, en forma controlada, las ventajas del software libre

En breve se brindarán las recomendaciones para la migración de MS-Office hacia OpenOffice comparando las dos suites de oficina al indicar las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de ellas.

Artículo de Linux Journal

Aunque en el PC de usuario final GNU/Linux mantiene una cuota residual frente a la alternativa privativa, no ocurre lo mismo en muchas de las áreas más exigentes a nivel tecnológico, por ejemplo, en el mundo del séptimo arte. Así, en los últimos años hemos visto al sistema operativo Open Source detrás del cine más reputado por sus efectos especiales, no solo en servidores, también en máquinas de trabajo.

En este artículo encontrarán un punto de vista interesante para resolver esta pregunta

¿Qué intereses habrán llevado a Microsoft a cambiar de postura?

Por qué y cómo la academia debe enseñar los principios y valores del opensource

No todo brilla en la viña del señor.

El presidente Vladimir Putin ya no quiere que su país dependa de tecnologías extranjeras, debido a la extensión política que perdura con Estados Unidos y Europa.

Conferencia en vivo de Richard Stallman en Cancún, hablada en español.

Para que la escuchen en camino a la Universidad

y luego puedan ver la conferencia de Stallman en TEDx

Se ha anunciado hace muy poco que Suiza se unirá a la lista de países que se pasan al software libre. En concreto,se va a proceder a realizar una migración hacia el software libre en Berna, la capital de Suiza.

The building and nurturing of community is more important to software development than you might think.

Jack Wallen proclaims the best user for the Linux platform isn't who you'd think it is.

Despite Microsoft's continued assault on Linux and on Android (using software patents, which it still discreetly lobbies for), some figures in the media are perpetually peddling the Microsoft-serving lie that 'Microsoft loves Linux'

"If you use any open source software, you have to make the rest of your software open source." That's what former Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer said back in 2001, and while his statement was never true, it must have spread some FUD (fear, uncertainty and doubt) about free software. Probably that was the intention.

Corporate use of open source software is now the norm with more than 60 percent of companies saying that they build their products with open source software, according to the 2015 Future of Open Source survey. But that same survey also revealed that most companies that use in their products don't have formal procedures in place for ensuring that their software complies with open source licenses and regulations.

Me parece bacano que hayan abierto el código, sin lugar a dudas. Sin embargo, pienso muy diferente al autor del artículo. Intel tenía ese software cerrado porque la innovación que presentaba y el boom mediático le generaban una publicidad suficientemente buena para costear su mantenimiento y desarrollo. Hoy, para Intel es un lastre, Hawking ya no es tan "popular" y ya hay software que está alcanzando los logros de los científicos de Intel, de esta forma la publicidad que recibe no "justifica" el costo del desarrollo. Las alternativas que tiene Intel son 2: Botar el software a la caneca para ahorrarse los costos (lo cual generaría una publicidad negativa exagerada en contra de Intel) o abrir el código como opensource como un gran detalle filantrópico de la empresa... Para mi, se demoraron en liberarlo, lo pudieron hacer desde el principio y ya.

El open source es una gran dirección a los nuevos graduados en IT. de la carrera de ciencias de la computación. He aquí por qué.

Es la trampa-22 cada nuevo graduado de la universidad se enfrenta a la hora de buscar su primer empleo: Se necesita experiencia o una cartera de trabajo realizado para demostrar su competenciaa un empleador potencial, pero es difícil conseguir una prueba tangible de sus habilidades sin tenerun trabajo de primera.

PIRATERIA, es leer esa palabra y enseguida se relaciona con un pirata con parche en el ojo y pata de palo, la realidad en éste caso es muy distinta, lo llamaré "Piratería 2.0" y terminar con ese presunto problema es muy complejo, pues siempre habrá quien no quedará contento. Lo que os voy a proponer, es una solución para que tanto el consumidor, cómo las industrias al fin se den la mano. ¿Quieres saber cómo?.

The Apache 2 license's patent grant, often misunderstood, makes open source safe to use.

¿Por qué una empresa desarrolladora de software decide "regalar" su producto?

Una consideración de lo diferente que el mercado de software para el consumidor de PC puede haber resultado si GNU y la Free Software Foundation hubiesen construido el software libre de "código abierto" para reemplazar MS-DOS y Windows, en lugar de UNIX.

En estos días me encontré con este artículo de Adrián Perales, disgustado (en mayor o menor medida) por el uso de la frase "Open Source" para referirse al software libre en donde veo que para él ambos términos son sinónimos.

Sin embargo, para mi el Software Libre y el Software Abierto (Open Source en inglés) son dos cosas que, si bien se parece, son diferentes y se fundamentan en dos tendencias interesantes para proteger la libertad cuya base filosófica es radicalmente distinta.

Microsoft utiliza Linux para depurar aplicaciones y para los servidores de sus datacenter

Nineteen years ago this week, at an annual meeting of Linux-Kongress in Bavaria, an American programmer named Eric Raymond delivered the first version of a working paper he called "The Cathedral and the Bazaar." According to Raymond, the exploratory and largely speculative account of some curious new programming practices contained "no really fundamental discovery."

Twitter is built on open source software.

Razones por la que deberias poner a Firefox como tu navegador predeterminado.

It's a hybrid and multi-cloud world, at least according to Red Hat.

So this week at its Summit in Boston the company that is known for commercializing open source projects for enterprises has taken steps to further facilitate how users of its application development tools can manage workloads across public clouds and on-premises systems.

Here are the key details: Red Hat announced native access to Amazon Web Services products in its Red Hat OpenShift product. OpenShift is the company's platform as a service (PaaS) application development software, and it's also the company's main tool for helping enterprises deploy application containers, including those from Docker.

There is free software and then there is software that is entirely free as in freedom (libre). These distros are ready-to-use full systems whose developers have followed the Guidelines for Free Systems Distribution as put forward by the Free Software Foundation.

Cómo un gran proyecto llega a su fin.

Continúan los problemas con SourceForge y sus malas prácticas

In today's open source roundup: SourceForge takes more heat for its Nmap page. Plus: Best Chromebook for a college student? And DistroWatch reviews Fedora 22 KDE

An open source license protects contributors and users. Businesses and savvy developers won't touch a project without this protection.

Una juez federal de los Estados Unidos ha sentado un precedente importante en el caso de las licencias abiertas. De acuerdo a su decisión, licencias como la GNU GPL (Licencia Pública General de GNU) pueden ser tratadas como contratos legales y los desarrolladores que las utilicen en sus programas pueden demandar a quienes violen esos contratos.

On the 11th anniversary of the GPLv3 license, learn about its lasting contributions to free and open source software.

¿Qué rol juega Internet en el mundo de hoy y por qué hay políticos de todo el mundo que quisieran liquidarlo para siempre? ¿Cuál es el motivo por el que los poderosos ocultan la verdad respecto a la crisis económica y qué final espera al euro? A estas preguntas y muchas otras responde Manuel Castells Oliván

El modelo de licenciamiento que Google puso sobre Android es bastante dudoso... más aún las patentes que Microsoft tiene sobre éste sistema operativo.

Android es un "Linux engallado", según la licencia GPL que protege a Linux este software es libre y sus modificaciones y mejoras deben ser libres... los drivers pueden ser privativos por ser un módulo independiente que interactúa con Linux, pero lo que tienen Google y Microsoft patentado es bastante dudoso que pueda ser patentado.

The Go programming language, sometimes referred to as Google's golang, is making strong gains in popularity. While languages such as Java and C continue to dominate programming, new models have emerged that are better suited to modern computing, particularly in the cloud. Go's increasing use is due, in part, to the fact that it is a lightweight, open source language suited for today's microservices architectures. Container darling Docker and Google's container orchestration product Kubernetes are built using Go. Go is also gaining ground in data science, with strengths that data scientists are looking for in overall performance and the ability to go from "the analyst's laptop to full production."

There are a number of different companies trying to make a business out of building open networking software. Among them is startup SnapRoute, which raised a $25 Million Series A round of funding on Feb. 7 2017.

Si descargaron Linux Mint en febrero de 2016 es importante que boten a la caneca esa versión pues tiene un troyano. Afortunadamente en menos de una semana el problema fue resuelto

Software that can be freely accessed, redistributed, and modified can be the basis of a successful business.

OJO, esto está relacionado con proyectos que facebook estaba liberando como opensource, no está diciendo que el propio software de facebook no es libre.

Facebook's BSD+Patent license combo fails not because of the license itself, but because it ignores the deeper nature of open source.

I have been using LibreOffice since it was called Star Office and all documents opened in a tabbed interface, as in most modern spreadsheet applications (anyone remember those days?). From those early days until now, I have considered Star Office/ to be an excellent, if not superior, tool compared to many on the market.

LyX is a GUI document processor with a focus on writing and it allows you to create virtually any type of document based on structure. In short, it is more of a WYSIWYM app than WYSIWYG app. Meaning that what you see in the editor is an approximation of what the finished document will look like.

Carriers are starting to look more like cloud companies, turning to standard hardware, virtualization and machine learning for rapid development of new services.

AT&T helped drive that trend on Wednesday by releasing ECOMP, the operating system of its software-defined network, as open source through the Linux Foundation. Like Linux, ECOMP will become a codebase that many different companies and developers - potentially even AT&T's rivals - collectively create and define into the future.

Adobe has finally heard what the world has been screaming at it for years: Flash needs to die.

Adobe today announced plans to cease all development and distribution of its once-ubiquitous but perennially unloved browser plugin by the end of 2020.

One of the most common tasks in any company's open source department is evaluating internal software to see if it would be a good candidate to give back to the community. When performing this task at PayPal, we found it useful to take each potential open source project through a vetting process originally framed by Danese Cooper that seeks to answer four primary questions:

  1. Who cares?
  2. Are we still using it?
  3. Are we committed to it?
  4. Can it be developed in one public tree?

This article looks at these questions and why they matter.

Microsoft has taken heat every time it tried to end support for Windows XP, but finally almost 13 years after it was released, Microsoft has flipped the switch and stopped delivering system updates to XP users.

El Ministerio de Defensa de la Federación de Rusia dice adiós a Windows y planea transferir todas sus computadoras a Linux. La distribución GNU/Linux elegida es de fabricación nacional, se llama Astra Linux y pertenece a la empresa RusbBITeh.

After developing it internally for over 10 years, the National Cybersecurity Agency of France (ANSSI) has decided to open source CLIP OS, a Linux-based operating system developed "to meet the specific needs of the [French] administration," and is asking outside coders to contribute to its development.

Getting the source code ready from a licensing quality perspective? On this page you find a straightforward guide to get it done right.

ISO/IEC 26300:2006/Amd 1:2012

The electronic version of this International Standard can be downloaded from the ISO/IEC Information Technology Task Force (ITTF) web site

Cabinet Office blasted for 'ignoring benefits' and 'limiting choice'

El ingeniero singapurense Yeo Kheng Meng ha publicado en su blog un video en el que se aprecia el proceso de un experimento técnico que llevó a cabo al ejecutar un sistema operativo moderno Linux en una computadora antigua con el microprocesador tipo i486, con el fin de "hacer el 486 grande otra vez". Kheng Meng usó una computadora creada en 1993 y le instaló el sistema operativo Gentoo Linux. El sistema funcionó, aunque tardaba 11 minutos en encenderse, y casi 6 minutos en apagarse.

FBI retiró el proceso pues ya no necesita la ayuda de Apple

The recent Fantec decision in Germany emphasizes the need for companies to manage their use of and cannot rely on statements from their suppliers. The court was very clear about this requirement and dismissed Fantec's attempted defense based on the additional cost of their own compliance. Although the costs for Fantec were modest because of a prior agreement setting the damages, Fantec was potentially liable for copyright damages and could have been forced to cease distributing their product.

Just because a font is on your system doesn't mean you should use it any way you want.

If you were to ask any of my friends, they could readily attest to my profound passion for Linux. That said, it might surprise you to know that hardly two years ago, I barely knew what Linux was, let alone had any earnest interest in switching to it from Windows.

ITPro talks to entrepreneur Steven Grandchamp about finding success with an open source project.

El gigante chino de los móviles Huawei hasta el momento tenía servidores con Windows Server y RHEL de Microsoft y Red Hat respectivamente. Como saben, la firma china se ha hecho bastante importante y grande gracias a la venta de teléfonos móviles y otros productos, pero sobre todo destacan sus smartphones con prestaciones elevadas comparándolas con otros de la competencia de gama alta pero por precios bastante razonables.

Not everyone should opt for Linux -- for many users, remaining with Windows or OSX is the better choice.

I don't think many people answer the question "What do you want to be when you grow up?" with "I want to work in open source."

In my experience, working in the open source community is something that happens as a result of something else. I worked in open source for a short time-in fact, the mission statement of the company I worked for included the words "open source." But my path to that job was not direct and not as laser-focused as one might think.

Libreoffice as a service - No más Office 360

Los desarrolladores del kernel han decidido modificar algunos aspectos de su licencia. Se pretende evitar que las cláusulas que exigen su cumplimiento, sean utilizadas para obtener beneficios económicos de tipo personal y perjudiquen a la comunidad que está alrededor del proyecto.

Intellectual Ventures, Finjan, RPX, and other Microsoft-connected trolls cannot be countered by LOT Network and the likes of it (notably OIN); Microsoft continues to shrewdly distribute patents to trolls, offering 'protection' from them (for a fee)

Summary: Microsoft reiterates its intention to only offer 'protection' (or indemnification) for GNU/Linux users who pay Microsoft monthly fees while going further and hinting that it may send additional patents to trolls

[The EPO] can't distinguish between hardware and software so the patents get issued anyway" -Marshall Phelps (Microsoft at the time)

The European Patent Office (EPO) continues to act like a vassal of patent aggressors, Microsoft carries on pretending that it's no longer attacking Free software, and evidence shows that patent policy is being perturbed by lobbyists connected to Microsoft

Having disguised Android and Chrome OS patent settlements as OEM "bundling" deals (preinstalling Microsoft spyware), Microsoft now comes up with a new way to market its "protection" (of it didn't even develop) from patent trolls, which requires that people pay Microsoft a subscription fee

Por ahí dicen que si está en Internet es porque es cierto... ¿qué creen ustedes?

Red Hat released its best practices for leading open projects, making decisions, collaborating and communicating.

In other words, Red Hat just put its decision-making code on Github.

The company's Open Decision Framework is likely to be a read for business and tech leaders. Officially, the framework is supposed to "help decision-makers communicate transparently, seek out diverse perspectives, collaborate more effectively across distributed teams, and limit unanticipated impacts of business projects and decisions."

Red Hat said it has received requests from outside organizations on how to use open source principles inside their enterprises.

The five core open source principles--open exchange, participation, meritocracy, community, and release early and often--are outlined in Red Hat's framework.

Any executive who sometimes feels like he or she has to herd cats may find Red Hat's framework interesting.

Una crítica sobre la seguridad del modelo OpenSource.  Tras leerlo aún tengo claro que el diseño de Linux y la apertura de su código permiten que sea más seguro y se ha demostrado.

Tanto con heartbleed como con LUKS, que efectivamente eran fallas de seguridad, una vez fueron detectadas fueron corregidas y a los pocos días cualquiera que actualizara su equipo podía dormir tranquilo, como dice el artículo, de ahí en adelante.

Cuando aparecen fallos de éste tipo en software privativo, lo que hacen las casas matrices es generar un parche (un software que trata de tapar el hueco) en lugar de una corrección en el código fuente y una recompilación total del software, debido a los costos (económicos y en goodwill de la marca) que le implica la redistribución de una nueva versión (que por supuesto DEBE cobrar por su modelo comercial). Todo ésto hace que sea muy lenta la distribución de la corrección y los usuarios quedan expuestos durante mucho más tiempo a la vulnerabilidad (meses), tiempo que los delincuentes utilizan para vulnerar sus datos.

Dr. Robin DeRosa, a pioneer in the open educational resource movement, discusses how an open approach can make higher education more affordable and enrich student learning.

Oracle ha anunciado la donación de la especificación Java EE (Enterprise Edition) a la Fundación Eclipse, encargada sobre todo del desarrollo del conocido IDE Eclipse, que además muy utilizado para el desarrollo con Java.

NPM, short for Node Package Manager, is a command line package manager for installing NodeJS packages, or modules. We already have have published a guide that described how to manage NodeJS packages using NPM. As you may noticed, managing NodeJS packages or modules using Npm is not a big deal. However, if you're not compatible with CLI-way, there is a desktop GUI application named NDM which can be used for managing NodeJS applications/modules. NDM, stands for NPM Desktop Manager, is a free, open source graphical front-end for NPM that allows us to install, update, remove NodeJS packages via a simple graphical window.

En 2017 Oracle decidió dejar de controlar el desarrollo de Java EE y empezarían por buscar una organización open source a la que pasar la batuta. Esa organización terminó siendo la Eclipse Foundation, la misma comunidad detrás de la plataforma Eclipse que consiste en el IDE y el ambiente de desarrollo.

A pesar de que las explicaciones del señor Moore parecen correctas, corresponden a falta de investigación y conocimiento del sistema operativo.

Response to Mythbusting Linux - Part 2

Over the course of past two years, we've been telling you how Microsoft is trying hard to earn the appreciation of open source developers by either contributing to open source software or sharing its own code on GitHub. These moves have faced skepticism from us as well. Just yesterday, at its Ignite conference, Microsoft launched SQL Server 2017 for Linux as well.

The GPL family of licenses is unique among open source licenses in how past, current, and future versions of the license may apply to the software program. By not fully understanding this unique license feature, open source software developers may inadvertently create ambiguity.

The USS Zumwalt will be a floating data center-armed with missiles and robot guns.

When the USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) puts to sea later this year, it will be different from any other ship in the Navy's fleet in many ways. The $3.5 billon ship is designed for stealth, survivability, and firepower, and it's packed with advanced technology. And at the heart of its operations is a virtual data center powered by off-the-shelf server hardware, various flavors of Linux, and over 6 million lines of software code.

The Apache Software Foundation is overhauling project leadership for the Cassandra database. Will it survive the change?

DevOps, microservices, and the shift to containers and lightweight computing environments explain a lot about Microsoft's position on .NET, open source and Nano Server.

Linux is everywhere. And, I mean everywhere. You name it, home electronics, smartphones, and, of course, computers. But, one place you probably didn't think of Linux living is sitting in your driveway right now: Your car.

Forking is a concept that can strike terror into the heart of any CIO that relies on open source software. Here's how to make sure you're on the right side of the split.

Es confiable el amor que profesa Microsoft por Linux

The terms free software and open source software do mean different things, though the categories of software they refer to are almost exactly the same.

To casual users, one person at a keyboard looks much the same as any other. Watch for a while, however, and the differences start to emerge -- and whether they are using Linux or Windows is the least of them.

It seldom happens that certain circumstances do not allow one idea to prosper as planned. But Open Source can solve that issue, once the idea is shared with the world. Others can take on that work, build upon and keep improving it.

La NASA ha decidido migrar los equipos personales de los astronautas de Windows a Linux en la Estación Espacial Internacional (ISS). Esta decisión se ha basado en la necesidad de contar con un sistema operativo "estable y confiable"

The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission marks a turning point for use of Linux in the space program. Linux has been used on space missions before—a Debian laptop rode the Space Shuttle on STS-83, for instance, as long ago as 1997.

Qué pasó con Huawei y Google: China vs USA

Google ha anunciado que va a dejar de colaborar con Huawei, dejando lleno de incertidumbre el futuro de uno de los fabricantes de móviles que más ha estado creciendo en los últimos años. Con la noticia, Internet se ha llenado de todo tipo de titulares confusos que han llegado a decir que el fabricante chino dejará de poder utilizar Android.

La gigantesca pelea entre Estados Unidos y Huawei se trasladó al Sena en Colombia, después de que la embajada norteamericana en Bogotá le pidiera al director de la entidad, Carlos Mario Estrada, no permitir que la empresa china de tecnología se ganara un contrato por 740 mil millones de pesos

Respuestas para las preguntas frecuentes que genera el caso de la firma china en EE. UU.


This quick tour offers a non-threatening introduction for DOS/Windows users to the not-so-different Linux filesystem structure.

Let's see what are the various kinds of file timestamps in Linux, how to see the timestamps for a file and how to change the timestamps.

Most Linux installations recommend that you include a SWAP partition. This may seem odd to Windows users, who are used to having their entire operating system on a single partition.

The value you enter indicates when you want Linux to start actively moving processes from the memory to the SWAP partition. So for example, a value of 10 indicates that processes will be moved when memory usage reaches 90%; the default swappiness value in Ubuntu of 60 indicates that processes will be moved when memory usage reaches 40% muchos lo explican así, no es cierto. No es un porcentaje.

Swap file or swap space is a file on Linux file-system that is used to hold programs or pages, in the event that the Physical memory aka RAM of the machine is full. Swap file can help the machines that have little amount of RAM but it can't be used as a full replacement for RAM.

Memory management is an essential aspect of every System Administrator to improve the performance of a Linux system. It is always a good practice to monitor swap space usage in Linux to ensure that your system operates relative to its memory demands.

Puede ser útil poder regular la tendencia que tiene Linux a pasar memoria a disco (swap). Mediante el sistema de ficheros proc es posible regularlo gracias al fichero /proc/sys/vm/swappiness.

As a system administrator, creating partitions on Linux for your disks is a very common task.
You may want for example to add some extra space to some directories on your filesystem, or you simply want to extend your existing filesystems because you expect them to grow.

​Making Linux partitions is one of the toughest tasks for new Linux users. In this article, I will cover various topics on Linux partitioning. I'll use different Linux partition managers to list, create, resize, extend and delete Linux partitions.

fdisk desde sus inicios ha sido la herramienta que permite particionar los discos duros en forma eficiente y eficaz.  He aquí una descripción de cómo utilizarlo.

Ver también

Everything you wanted to know about setting up storage but were afraid to ask

GParted and GParted Live releases version 0.32.0 with key updates and bug fixes.

This is the thirteenth in our series of articles highlighting essential system tools. These are small, indispensable utilities, useful for system administrators as well as regular users of Linux based systems. The series examines both graphical and text based open source utilities. For this article, we'll look at GParted, a graphical and command-line disk partition tool. For details of all tools in this series, please check the table at the summary page of this article.

El tema de las particiones de un disco duro suele ser algo espinoso y asusta a aquellas personas que no suelen tener experiencia. Básicamente el esquema de particiones suele ser el mismo en todos los sistemas operativos: Partición de arranque, datos y opcionalmente Swap. Las diferencias empiezan con los formatos de esas particiones, que en GNU/Linux es más utilizado ext4 para datos y FAT32 para arranque o boot. Esto suele ser distinto en otros sistemas operativos, como Windows, macOS y FreeBSD.

systemd has its own logging system which provides centralized management for logging kernel and userland processes. This article explains how to clear the systemd journal log files.

This tutorial discusses the ways to check disk space on Linux using the command line or graphical tools.

From time to time, we need to clear up our system storage to make space for installing new programs and dealing with additional files. This is especially important when you have a low storage device or a limited storage capacity. Even if you have a large storage available but you are a person like me who likes to clear up clutter from time to time, this article will brief you about multiple ways to do so. Ubuntu might be a light operating system but it is not too friendly on the storage, especially because it does not delete the packages it downloads for installing software.

Si requieres que un directorio de un disco duro en un computador remoto esté disponible cuando este computador se conecte a la red, ésta es la solución.

NFS es rápido, seguro y bueno. Perfecta alternativa cuando necesitan tener un directorio compartido sin utilizar SMB 

In this guide, we are going to learn to use df command. The df command, stands for Disk Free, reports file system disk space usage. It displays the amount of disk space available on the file system in a Linux system. The df command is not to be confused with du command. Both serves different purposes. The df command reports how much disk space we have (i.e free space) whereas the du command reports how much disk space is being consumed by the files and folders. Hope I made myself clear. Let us go ahead and see some practical examples of df command, so you can understand it better.

On the internet you will find plenty of tools for checking disk space utilization in Linux. However, Linux has a strong built-in utility called ‘df‘. The ‘df‘ command stands for "disk filesystem", it is used to get a full summary of available and used disk space usage of the file system on Linux system.

How much space do I have left on my hard drive? Is there enough free disk space to download a large file or install a new application?

On Linux based systems you can use the df command to get a detailed report on the system's disk space usage.

As a system administrator, you may have a certain directory that you want to give read/write access to every user on a Linux server. In this guide, we will review how to enable write access to all users on a particular directory (shared directory) in Linux.

A symbolic link, also know as symlink or soft link, is a special type of file that points to another file or directory.

The ln command is used to create links on a Linux filesystem. There are two different kinds of links, hard and soft (symbolic). Here we will discuss what both are, and how to use them. Then we will discuss some facts about each.

As system administrators, we would have got requirements wherein we need to configure raw hard disks to the existing servers as part of upgrading server capacity or sometimes disk replacement in case of disk failure.

In this article, I will take you through the steps by which we can add the new raw hard disk to an existing Linux server such as RHEL/CentOS or Debian/Ubuntu.

Take a walk through EXT4's history, features, and optimal use, and learn how it differs from previous iterations of the EXT filesystem.

List of differences between ext2, ext3 and ext 4 Linux file systems. One of the Linux interview question answered in this article!

As we already knows, in Linux, everything is configured as a file. This includes not only text files, images and compiled programs, directories, partitions and hardware device drivers, etc,.

In the world of Linux | UNIX system administration one of our tasks is to perform Linux check disk space. Performing Linux check disk space operation makes us aware about the current utilization of the mount point within the system. Here is list of command for Linux check disk space.

To facilitate your re-getting process of files, here we have listed the most worthy 15 Linux file recovery tools that you can use without any hesitation.
ext3grep is a simple program for recovering files on an EXT3 filesystem. It is an investigation and recovery tool that is useful in forensics investigations. It helps to show information about files that existed on a partition and also recover accidentally deleted files.

As you may already know, we use mv command to rename or move files and directories in Unix-like operating systems. But, the mv command won't support renaming multiple files at once. Worry not. In this tutorial, we are going to learn to rename multiple files at once using "mmv" command in Linux. This command is used to move, copy, append and rename files in bulk using standard wildcards in Unix-like operating systems.

We often use "mv" command to rename a single file in Linux. However, renaming multiple or group of files quickly makes it very difficult task in a terminal

Renaming multiple files manually can be a pain and not everyone is comfortable performing such operations from the command line. Below you'll find 3 Linux GUI utilities that should be able to cover most of your bulk renaming needs.


Muy útil para desarrolladores o para limpiar el directorio de fotos que hayan sido alimentados múltiples veces y se hayan generado copias y copias de la misma foto.

It is a common requirement to find and replace duplicate files for most of the computer users. Finding and removing duplicate files is a tiresome job that demands time and patience. Finding duplicate files can be very easy if your machine is powered by GNU/Linux, thanks to 'fdupes' utility.

A tutorial showing how to enable Linux Access Control Lists as well as how to use ACL's to go beyond basic permissions

There are many tools available to create bootable USB drive on Linux. We have already reviewed a few such tools, namely Etcher, Bootiso, and MultiCD. If you don’t want to use these third-party tools, there is a built-in command line tool called dd (Data Duplicator) available to create a bootable USB drives. Using the live bootable medium, we can test the Linux distributions without having to install them on the hard drive. We can also use the live cd for troubleshooting purposes as well. When you try the Live USB, you can do all sort of things, such as installing applications, downloading files, playing media, creating files and folders, customizing it as per your liking and a lot more. However once you reboot the system, all of the said changes will be lost. Because, you are working on a live OS. What if you want to make all changes remain intact even after rebooted the system? That’s what we are going to do now. This tutorial will teach you how to create persistent Live USB using Mkusb tool on Ubuntu and its variants.

Esta herramienta monitorea la salud de los discos duros para brindar alertas tempranas que permitan al administrador prevenir pérdidas de información

Smartctl (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) is a command line utility or a tool in UNIX like operating system that perform SMART tasks such as printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling and disabling SMART automatic testing, and initiating device self-tests.
Incron es una potente herramienta para monitorear la actividad del sistema de archivos. Consiste en un demonio y un manipulador de tablas. Se usa de manera similar a la del cron. La diferencia principal es que «inotify cron» (corresponde con las dos primeras letras de incron) maneja eventos del sistema de archivos en lugar de periodos de tiempo como lo hace cron
In this article, we will review a number of Linux command line utilities that you can use to check disk partitions in Linux.

Si desean almacenar información en la nube, en espacios de bajo costo o gratuitos, aquí está la guía que estaban buscando.

This is how you can configure K3b to burn Blu-ray and other disks using K3b in Ubuntu/Linux.
Drop a comment below if you are facing challenges using K3b for Blu-ray disks.

If you're dual booting Windows and Linux, you'll probably want to access files on your Linux system from Windows at some point. Linux has built-in support for Windows NTFS partitions, but Windows can't read Linux partitions without third-party software.

So we've rounded up some third-party software to help. This list is focused on applications that support the Ext4 file system, which most new Linux distributions use by default. These applications all support Ext2 and Ext3, too-and one of them even supports ReiserFS.

When Google introduced Google Drive in April 24, 2012, they promised Linux support "coming soon." That was nearly five years ago. Google still hasn't released an official version of Google Drive for Linux, but there are other tools to fill the gap.

Google is one of the best known search engine which offers many things as FREE of cost like gmail, gdrive, youtube, google+, etc. Everything we can access through web browser but one big challenge in Linux to access gdrive (Its offering 15GB of free storage) natively through desktop app.

As of now there is no official google drive client for Linux but the same time we can saw official google drive clients for other operating systems such as Windows, Android, OS X & iOS.

In this article, we will show you how to remove a file in GNU/Linux systems using the unlink command

We already have covered how to manually find and delete files older than X days using "find" command in Linux. Today we will do the same, but only if the files have not been accessed for a certain period of time. Say hello to "Tmpwatch", a command line utility to recursively delete files that haven’t been accessed for a given time. Not just files, tmpwatch will also delete empty directories as well.

Usually, to delete/remove a file from Linux terminal, we use the rm command (delete files), shred command (securely delete a file), wipe command (securely erase a file) or secure-deletion toolkit (a collection of secure file deletion tools).

Learn how to resolve bad magic number in super-block error in Linux. This process describes step by step procedure to resolve bad magic number in super-block error.

Get access to any files from Windows!

Wiping a disk is done by writing new data over every single bit.

I am going to sell my laptop soon. Before discarding my system, I want to make sure that no one should be able to use my personal data using any method (format do not work). Is there any open source software out there that can help me permanently erase my hard disk?

You may need to wipe you hard drive to clean up partition errors, bad installations, or for privacy. This will show you howto do this


In this tutorial we'll refer to a practical example of Linux dd command that can be used by system administrators to migrate or clone a Windows Operating System or a Linux OS from a larger HDD partitioned in MBR or GPT layout style to a smaller SSD. In this excerpt we'll use as an example a Windows system installed on a hard disk with multiple partitions. This method can become quite complicated in case the HDD is partitioned in MBR scheme and contains an extended partition with multiple logical partitions or the partitions are out of order. I suggest you don't use this method if that's the case. In such cases it's safer to use ddrescure which can clone your entire disk layout (partition table and used blocks inside each partitions) without actually transferring the empty space. DDrescure can be obtained by installing gddrescue package from Ubuntu main repositories.

Safely and reliably make perfect copies of drives, partitions, and filesystems with the Linux dd tool.

When you delete a file accidentally or intentionally on your system using 'shift delete' or delete option or empty Trash, the file content is not destroyed from the hard disk (or any storage media).

It is simply removed from the the directory structure and you cannot see the file in the directory where you deleted it, but it still remains somewhere in your hard drive.

You know those times when things go wrong on your computer, and it won't boot, or you can't' login into your system, or there's a rootkit messing up your booting or you just want to recover files from a drive. Those are the times having a rescue disc will do you a great deal of good in helping you out. So let's take a look at 5 very useful Linux based Rescue CDs you can check out.

SystemRescueCd is a Linux system rescue disk available as a bootable CD-ROM or USB stick for administrating or repairing your system and data after a crash. It aims to provide an easy way to carry out admin tasks on your computer, such as creating and editing the hard disk partitions. It comes with a lot of linux software such as system tools (parted, partimage, fstools, ...) and basic tools (editors, midnight commander, network tools). It can be used for both Linux and windows computers, and on desktops as well as servers. This rescue system requires no installation as it can be booted from a CD/DVD drive or USB stick, but it can be installed on the hard disk if you wish. The kernel supports all important file systems (ext2/ext3/ext4, reiserfs, btrfs, xfs, jfs, vfat, ntfs), as well as network filesystems (samba and nfs)

Now a days, computer or digital forensics is a very important because of  crimes related to computer, Internet and mobiles. Evidences such as computer and digital devices contain or store sensitive information which can be useful for forensic investigator in a particular crime or incident.

Digital forensic investigation required tools to extract desired information from the devices. Several commercial  tools are exist for forensic investigation however huge amount is required to buy. Open source community also contributed in this field and there are several open source tools for digital forensic field.  In this article, best tools related to digital forensic will be explored.

The developers of the DEFT Linux forensic operating system have announced the immediate availability for download of a new edition called DEFT Zero, versioned 2017.1, and based on Lubuntu 14.04.02 LTS.

When you rescue your data from a dying hard drive, time is of the essence. The longer it takes to copy your data, the more you risk losing. GNU ddrescue is the premium tool for copying dying hard drives, and any block device such as CDs, DVDs, USB sticks, Compact Flash, SD cards -- anything that is recognized by your Linux system as /dev/foo. You can even copy Windows and Mac OS X storage devices because GNU ddrescue operates at the block level, rather than the filesystem level, so it doesn't matter what filesystem is on the device.

We're all on the same team, and all working towards the same goal of making our open source software better. Your small contributions make a big impact.


Welcome to Libregamewiki, the free gaming encyclopedia.

Whether you want something free to play or you're looking for invest in a long term favorite, there are plenty of amazing options on Linux. Many of Linux's best titles are actually the best in their genre. This is especially true with some eSports games. Plenty of big names from other platforms have been ported over to Linux recently too, allowing for a ton of choice. That said, these games stand out above the rest.

Before Valve ported their popular Steam gaming platform to Linux, gaming on the operating system seemed like a hopeless pursuit. Most Linux gaming came in the form of a handful of open source games or messy Wine configurations to get Windows games to work, albeit at a huge performance hit. Now, the picture is much different, thanks in large part to Steam.

If you're new to Linux and you're wondering what notable releases have made their way to Linux in 2018, here's a quick list of some good stuff on the table.

Si quieren programar juegos, ésta es una herramienta muy poderosa

Most peripherals aren't supported under Linux, right? Well, there's a lot more support available than you probably think. While it's true that most hardware manufacturers completely neglect Linux, it's also true that the open source community is capable of just about anything. They've stepped up and created excellent open-source drivers for a lot of popular gaming hardware. Then, of course, you have mice that just don't need drivers and will work out of the box. Those are a great option for gaming on Linux, too.

  • Halo
  • MineCraft
  • Gta San Andreas
  • Fifa 2005
  • Need for speed
PlayOnLinux is a free program that helps to install, run, and manage Windows software on Linux. It can also manage virtual C: drives (known as Wine prefixes), and download and install certain Windows libraries for getting some software to run on Wine properly. Creating different drives using different Wine versions is also possible. It is very handy because what runs well in one version may not run as well (if at all) on a newer version. There is PlayOnMac for macOS and PlayOnBSD for FreeBSD.
Wine is the compatibility layer that allows many programs developed for Windows to run under operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, macOS and other UNIX systems. The app database (AppDB) gives users an overview of a multitude of programs that will function on Wine, however successfully.

Both programs can be obtained using your distribution's software center or package manager for convenience.

Not to be confused with the upcoming SteamOS 3.0, this beta update is for the current 'Brewmaster' release.

Ask some Linux users why they still sticks with Windows dual boot, probably the answer would be – "Games!". It was true! Luckily, open source gaming platforms like Lutris and Proprietary gaming platform Steam have brought many games to Linux platforms and improved the Linux gaming experience significantly over the years. Today, I stumbled upon yet another Linux gaming-related, open source tool named GameMode, which allows the users to improve gaming performance on Linux.

Linux may not be establishing itself as the gamer's platform of choice any time soon - the lack of success with Valve's Steam Machines seems a poignant reminder of that - but that doesn't mean that the platform isn't steadily growing with its fair share of great games.

It seems someone has forked Wine-Staging adding in all the needed patches for Overwatch to work, so I tested it out.

Thanks to Lutris already having this special Wine build available for use, I decided to borrow my girlfriend's copy of Overwatch to see how far it will go.

Total War: WARHAMMER [Steam, Feral Store] is the latest big Linux port from Feral Interactive. As someone who has only recently become a fan of Warhammer, it was fun to see this game arrive on Linux.

"Night in the Woods," the much anticipated crowdfunded game scheduled to be released next week - with a GNU/Linux version, BTW - built a development community by open sourcing code.

We'll show you how to make a Minecraft server with beginner-friendly step-by-step instructions. It will be a persistent multiplayer server that you can play on with your friends from all around the world. You don't have to be in a LAN.

In early October, our club, Geeks and Gadgets from Marshall University, participated in the inaugural Open Jam, a game jam that celebrated the best of open source tools. Game jams are events where participants work as teams to develop computer games for fun. Jams tend to be very short—only three days long—and very exhausting. announced Open Jam in late August, and more than three dozen games were entered into the competition.

Wine gaming is sort of a moving target. It always has been. Just when you think you know the lay of the land, something new pops up and disrupts everything. The latest curveball comes in the form of DXVK.

The developers behind the open-source, cross-platform 2D/3D Godot game engine have placed a release freeze on the upcoming Godot 3.1 with today's beta reveal


There you are typing happily away, when all of a sudden you accidentally hit some hotkeys and weird things happen. Linux does not yet have a universal "undo" button, which I think is the most needed feature for any computer, so you have to know what you did so you can undo it. If you don't find the offending keyboard shortcut after reading this article, you'll know where to look to find out how they're configured on your system.

Shortcuts are designed to help shorten the time required to perform frequently used commands or actions. In the below sections, we have listed keyboard shortcut keys that can be performed by pressing two or more keys at once. We have also listed command line shortcut keys that can be typed in at the shell.


Ever heard of the term processor affinity? It's a feature that allows you to bind or unbind processes to a particular central processing unit, or a range of CPUs. Yes, you can tell the system which CPU core(s) should be used to a run a particular process.
Step by step procedure to upgrade kernel in RHEL, Suse and Ubuntu Linux along with sample outputs of all the commands.
No es tan dificil como se piensa

Here's how I went from Linux newbie to community contributor... Hint: study the code and start out simple.

One of the biggest -and the fastest moving- open source projects, the Linux kernel, is composed of about 53,600 files and nearly 20-million lines of code. With more than 15,600 programmers contributing to the project worldwide, the Linux kernel follows a maintainer model for collaboration.

Understanding systems that are functioning well is great preparation for dealing with the inevitable failures.

A veces las distribuciones se demoran mucho en generar el paquete RPM o DEB con las ventajas y funcionalidades del último kernel publicado.  En este artículo se encuentran las pautas para los impacientes.

Suppose you wanted to install a device driver for a new graphics card, a WiFi dongle, or a network interface card that you purchased, and for whatever reason (e.g., missing prebuilt driver, outdated driver version, non-common build options), you decided to compile and install the driver module from the source. So you went ahead and downloaded the official source code of the device driver, compiled it against the kernel, installed and activated it. The new hardware is successfully recognized, and everything works fine.

The thought of compiling your own kernels strikes fear in the hearts of new Linux users. It sounds terrifying, building the most crucial part of your system from scratch. The truth is, though, building the Linux kernel is really easy.

In this article, we will show how to remove old/unused kernel images on RHEL/CentOS/Fedora systems. However, before you remove an old kernel, it is important to keep your kernel up to date; install the latest version in order to leverage new kernel functions and to protect your system from vulnerabilities that have been discovered in older versions.

One of the strengths of Ubuntu is its stability. Each bit of software included inside releases are vigorously tested. They are essentially  "snapshots" in time. Everything stays stable. This method has proven to be very effective. Ubuntu is used heavily in work and production environments as a result of this. This is great for most users, but for advanced users looking to get the latest and the greatest, this can be a bit of a drawback.

Performing an linux kernel upgrade offers new features and improvements. Here is a quick way to perform Linux kernel upgrade.

Linux Kernel 4.15 has been released on 28 Jan 2018. You might have heard a lot about Meltdown and Spectre vulnerabilities in the chips for the past few months. Thanks to the entire Linux Kernel development team, this release contains the latest code to deal with Meltdown/Spectre issues. Even though, the issues haven't been completely fixed yet, at least we've got a temporary fix. "The Linux Kernel 4.15 version is quiet and small, and no last-minute panics, just small fixes for various issues" Says Linus Torvalds

If you want to use Linux audio for professional work, but have been using Windows up until now, then there are some important differences you need to know about.

This article will help explain the basics of Linux audio, and it will do so by directly comparing each part of the system to the equivalent in Windows. This is to make it easy for musicians and sound engineers who understand Windows well to switch to Linux and get back their fun and freedom.

So sit back, relax, and get ready to learn:

Exactly what an audio framework is
The key differences between the way Linux and Windows handle audio
How Window's WASAPI and ASIO compare with Linux's ALSA and JACK

The Linux kernel is watching out for you, and when it detects something on the system violated the kernel's rules about proper behavior, it will shut the system down and issue an "oops"

Do you know the Linux kernel loads several device drivers when the system boots? In fact, when your system is up and running, and you connect a hardware device, then also a corresponding device driver gets loaded. Of course, the kernel also does a lot of other stuff. What if you want to know info related to these kernel activities?


What happens when you're locked in to a vendor that's too big to fail, but is on the opposite end of a trade war?

Several stories recently have spread misinformation about how Google licenses Android and its services. Here's the real story on how Android licensing works with open source and Linux.

ES OFICIAL: IBM compra la empresa de software Red Hat por 34.000 millones de dólares

Hace unos años Oracle compró a Sun Microsystems y esto implicó que todos los activos de la empresa formaron parte ahora del gigante de las bases de datos. Esto incluyó Java, un lenguaje de programación gratuito que ha tenido mucho éxito en el mundo y en donde se tiene una muy amplia comunidad de desarrolladores. Hay además, depósitos de software con una infinidad de bibliotecas y rutinas escritas en Java disponibles en su mayoría de forma gratuita.

La Corte Constitucional ordenó a MinTIC crear una regulación nacional para proteger los derechos de los usuarios de Internet, frente a publicaciones difamatorias.

La Corte Constitucional acaba de ordenar a Google Estados Unidos, el motor de búsqueda en Internet más grande del mundo, que debe respetar la legislación nacional en materia de protección de los usuarios y consumidores por ejercer sus actividades en el país.

The Krita Foundation is having trouble with the Dutch tax authorities. This is the situation:

El juicio de Oracle vs Google concluyó, cuando un jurado emitió un veredicto a favor de Google. El litigio comenzó en 2010, cuando Oracle demandó a Google, diciendo que el uso de las API de Java en Android violó la ley de derechos de autor. Después de un juicio de 2012, un juez sostuvo que las API no pueden ser propiedad del todo, pero que la decisión fue revocada en apelación. En el ensayo de este mes, Google argumentó con éxito que el uso de las API de Java, cerca de 11.500 líneas de código en todo, estaba protegido por "uso justo".

Google acaba de perder un importante caso de derechos de autor que podría costarle miles de millones de dólares y cambiar la forma en que las compañías tecnológicas abordan el desarrollo de tecnología.

En la batalla legal en la que Google y Oracle llevan envueltas desde hace más de 10 años por temas de Copyright y el uso del código Java sin licencia por parte de la de Mountain View, la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos ha tomado hoy una decisión. El tribunal, por mayoría 6 - 2, da la razón a Google, lo que anula la anterior decisión que había tomado la Corte de Apelación del Circuito Federal en 2018. Esto ahorra a la firma de Android de pagar cantidades millonarias de dinero y además sienta bases legales para el futuro del copyright y del uso de licencias de software.

La sanción se debe al dominio de mercado que tiene su sistema operativo Android para teléfonos celulares

Es debatible el modelo que utiliza MySQL para licenciar su producto, ellos dicen que es libre, pero coharta libertades escenciales... ¿qué opinan ustedes?

Tras leer el reciente articulo publicado en Gizmondo criticando la seguridad de Telegram, me preocupé mucho y decidí investigar sobre el tema y asegurarme de lo que William Turton afirmaba como un riesgo a la seguridad de tus datos fuera cierto. Por supuesto hace tiempo aprendí que en la Internet debes tener varias fuentes para confirmar cierta noticia, nada más fácil que "pagar" para que alguien publique una nota de desprestigio de algo o de alguien. No sería la primera vez que una web de tecnología claramente "se vende" hablando de una cosa o de una persona mal al principio y "mágicamente" muy bien, poco después (¿Verdad Apple Watch?).

El gobierno ruso solicitó a Telegram las claves de cifrado de su aplicación para poder así acceder a los mensajes enviados desde su plataforma. Pero desde Telegram se han negado en todo momento a darlas y el gobierno les dio una fecha límite para entregarlas, plazo que finalizó y ahora las autoridades han solicitado al órgano regulador que impida el uso de Telegram en toda Rusia.

You enjoy thinking about free software licenses, you're angry about the latest patent troll, and you've said IANAL so many times that you've considering becoming an open source lawyer. What now?

The recent World Trade Organisation (WTO) meeting in Geneva has brought Antigua's plan to run a copyright-free download site for media one step closer to reality.

Quienes defendían (defendíamos) la propuesta de Sun Microsystems la década pasada temblábamos ante la noticia. Oracle compraba Sun en abril de 2009 por 7.400 millones de dólares, y la comunidad Open Source que estaba encantada con la filosofía de Sun hasta ese momento temía lo peor.

Y lo peor ocurrió. Lenta pero inexorablemente Oracle fue desvelando sus cartas. Unas que desmotraron que a pesar de hacerse con desarrollos globales como Java o MySQL a Oracle solo le interesaba una cosa: destruir Sun y todo su legado.

Oracle is shutting down SPARC and Solaris. Good bye, Sun. It was nice knowing you.

Por supuesto hay quienes defienden el licenciamiento dual, para mi el artículo manipula muchos términos inadecuadamente, pero lo presento a ustedes para que puedan escuchar la otra cara del debate.

Oracle demanda a Google por utilizar el JDK que no es libre en android.

Google de ahora en adelante va a utilizar openJDK en android.

Conclusión: Como Android es el sistema operativo más utilizado, a Oracle le va a tocar dejar de utilizar el JDK normal si quiere mantenerse en el estándar


Ha! Guess who's back in the news? Even as a ghost, SCO is trying to pickpocket IBM's wallet. Well, it's not a ghost exactly. It's brain dead and on life support, but just alive enough to seek yet another day in court.

Otro artículo que cuestiona la libertad en los licenciamientos duales.


APT also known as Advanced Packaging Tool is the command-line tool for managing packages in Debian-based distributions like Ubuntu 16.04, Ubuntu 18.04, Debian 8, Debian 9 and much more. APT simplifies the process of installing, removing, upgrading packages and even used to upgrade the entire operating system through the Command Line Interface.

One important thing to master under Linux System/Server Administration is package management using different package management tools.

Más información para mantener actualizado un debian/Ubuntu

Antes de terminar el curso es conveniente que lean este artículo para que dejen ajustado su ubuntu.

¿Hay diferencias entre "sudo apt-get update", "sudo apt-get upgrade", "sudo apt-get dist-upgrade"?

  • update: actualiza la lista de paquetes disponibles y sus versiones, pero no instala o actualiza ningún paquete. Esta lista la coge de los servidores con repositorios que tenemos definidos en el sources.list.
  • upgrade: una vez el update ha descargado la lista de software disponible y la versión en la que se encuentra, podemos actualizar dichos paquetes usando este comando: apt-get upgrade. Instalará las nuevas versiones respetando la configuración del software cuando sea posible (esta es la maravilla de este tipo de sistemas). Con upgrade actualizas el sistema operativo pero no los críticos (es una actualización segura)
  • dist-upgrade: Actualiza la versión del sistema de la versión LTS (Long time support) a la siguiente LTS.
  • full-upgradeactualizacion completa
  • safe-upgradeactualización segura
upgrade is used to install the newest versions of all packages
currently installed on the system from the sources enumerated in
/etc/apt/sources.list. Packages currently installed with new
versions available are retrieved and upgraded; under no
circumstances are currently installed packages removed, or packages
not already installed retrieved and installed. New versions of
currently installed packages that cannot be upgraded without
changing the install status of another package will be left at
their current version. An update must be performed first so that
apt-get knows that new versions of packages are available.

dist-upgrade in addition to performing the function of upgrade,
also intelligently handles changing dependencies with new versions
of packages; apt-get has a "smart" conflict resolution system, and
it will attempt to upgrade the most important packages at the
expense of less important ones if necessary. So, dist-upgrade
command may remove some packages. The /etc/apt/sources.list file
contains a list of locations from which to retrieve desired package
files. See also apt_preferences(5) for a mechanism for overriding
the general settings for individual packages.

If you want to set your Ubuntu system to automatically take care of your system Trash over a particular period of time, you can make use of the command line utility called autotrash. Autotrash is a utility that looks in a Trash folder for information on its contents and then purges a part of the trash depending on your specified options.

This brief guide describes how to list installed packages sorted by installation date from command line in Unix-like operating systems. This can be helpful if you want to know what or how many packages you have installed on a certain date or time in your Linux box.


Oh, the convoluted world of Apple! Neither can you live without an iDevice nor can you live with it. -Even more so, if you're a Linux user. Getting the pretty penguin to tango with Apple's ever-expanding product line has always been a hassle-filled path. From the early days of the iPod, Linux developers have been working hard to make each and every Apple device work with the penguinian OS out of the box. Though they've succeeded to a certain extent, we'll all have to admit that there's a lot of work to be done.

I do hope that these fixes work for everyone but it's not a guarantee because the bug is hardware dependent and though the workaround works for most laptop models, there are surely a few exceptions.

A step by step guide showcasing how to install Raspberry Pi without a keyboard and monitor, i.e., headless setup of Raspberry Pi using Linux.

Santoku Linux es una distribución que además de recibir el nombre de un cuchillo japonés indispensable para muchos cocineros, también resulta una herramienta indispensable para los que necesiten practicar auditorías de seguridad en dispositivos móviles. Éste tipo de auditorías está al alza con el incremento del uso de este tipo de elementos y para ello existe esta distro.

Santoku es una distribución Linux basada en OWASP's MobiSec especializada en pruebas de seguridad, análisis de malware y análisis forenses para teléfonos móviles, válida para dispositivos con Android, BlackBerry, iOS y Windows Phone.

Hoy quiero hablaros de Santoku Linux, una distribución basada en Lubuntu 14.04 diseñada para la auditoría de dispositivos móviles que cuenta con herramientas para el análisis de malware y pruebas de seguridad de aplicaciones. Actualmente se encuentra en fase de desarrollo y disponible sólo para arquitecturas de 64 bits, podemos tener acceso tanto al código fuente del sistema como de todas sus herramientas.

OpenVPN is an open source secure tunnel application. It creates an encrypted tunnel between a client and a server. Any data passing through the tunnel is immune from being read by anyone that is able to intercept the data. In this case, the client will be your Android phone and the server will be a server that you own running OpenVPN.

This is extremely valuable because it means that all of your data is unreadable by anyone between you and your server. This includes the suspect WiFi network you just connected to, your phone company, or even your office.

OpenVPN has a (well-deserved) reputation for being difficult to setup and configure. However, we will employ some additional tools to get an OpenVPN server up and running in a couple of minutes and get your phone connecting and routing all data to it in a few more.

All you need for this guide is:

  1. A server running Ubuntu 16.04 (newer versions may work but I have only tested this on 16.04).
  2. An Android phone.

Your server will need a public IP address that does not have anything bound to port 443. This is the port that HTTPS usually binds to so if you are running a website from this IP then the following guide will not work.

We will use port 443 because it is frequently allowed outbound through firewalls and the OpenVPN traffic will most likely be mistaken for simple HTTPS traffic.


In this quick tutorial, I’ll show what kind of information you can get about your system with the uname command.

a command line utility used to record and keep track of a Linux system up times. Using Uptimed, we can easily display a summary of historical uptime records, such as how long your Linux system has been up, what is the highest uptime, when the system has been rebooted etc. In this brief guide, let us see how to monitor Linux system uptime using Uptimed utility.

As a system engineer, you will often need to produce reports that show the utilization of your system's resources in order to make sure that: 1) they are being utilized optimally, 2) prevent bottlenecks, and 3) ensure scalability, among other reasons.

Listing of important Linux log files and their formats. These logs plays vital role in troubleshooting and every sysadmin should be aware of them.

Linux operating system and many applications create special files commonly referred to as "logs" to record their operational events. These system logs or application-specific log files are an essential tool when it comes to understanding and troubleshooting the behavior of the operating system and third-party applications.

Una guía para el montaje de los monitores que permite:

  • Consultar los núcleos utilizados
  • Consultar el primer momento del arranque.
  • Contador de inicios del sistema.
  • Contar las paradas buenas y malas.
  • Calcular el tiempo de actividad y el porcentaje de tiempo de inactividad desde el primer momento del arranque.
  • Calcular el tiempo de actividad del sistema acumulada, el tiempo de inactividad y total.
  • Imprimir el tiempo de actividad actual.
  • Imprimir tabla o una lista formateada con la mayor parte de los valores almacenados previamente

En lugar de utilizar "aptitude install git"

  • Si está en Mageia dé el comando: "urpmi git"
  • Si está en Ubuntu dé el comando: "apt-get install git"

El intercambio de información con el disco duro es uno de los principales cuellos de botella que existen actualmente.  Con este comando lograremos conocer el estado de las congestiones que hay aquí.

In this article we have made a list of the most used and most useful tools to monitor the performance for your box. We provided a link for each of them and split them into 2 categories: command lines one and the ones that offer a graphical interface.

Install Phoronix Test Suite and benchmark your system's graphical performance using the Unigine benchmarks and Steam games.

aureport is part of a larger toolset that comes with auditd. Using auditd to monitor some preset events is already quite useful, but where it comes into its own is when you customize it to monitor whatever you want.

Linux distributions provide quite a few useful commands for gauging disk activity. Here's a look at a few of them.

Look deeply into your Linux code with these Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF) Compiler Collection (bcc) tools.

Hace tiempo venimos mostrando comandos y formas para monitorear tu Linux como ps, top, iotop, vmstat por nombrar algunas, esto es importante para un sysadmin dado que es el encargado de hacer que la magia de la tecnología funcione entre los mortales, este procedimiento lo probé en Debian Jessie, así que funcionará en sus derivadas, veamos como funciona.

Cpustat is a powerful system performance measure program for Linux, written using Go programming language. It attempts to reveal CPU utilization and saturation in an effective way, using The Utilization Saturation and Errors (USE) Method (a methodology for analyzing the performance of any system).

No longer a simple log-processing pipeline, Logstash has evolved into a powerful and versatile data processing tool. Here are basics to get you started.

GoAccess is an interactive and real time web server log analyzer program that quickly analyze and view web server logs. It comes as an open source and runs as a command line in UNIX/Linux operating systems. It provides brief and beneficial HTTP (web server) statistics report for Linux administrators on the fly. It also take care of both the Apache and Ngnix web server log formats.

En mageia, para instalarlo, el comando es "urpmi goaccess"

Cacti is a complete network graphing solution designed to harness the power of RRDTool's data storage and graphing functionality. Cacti provides a fast poller, advanced graph templating, multiple data acquisition methods, and user management features out of the box. All of this is wrapped in an intuitive, easy to use interface that makes sense for LAN-sized installations up to complex networks with hundreds of devices.

One of the keys to protecting a Linux system is to know what's going on inside it -- what files change, who accesses what and when, and which applications get run. Incrond was used up until some years ago for the former, but, despite rumors to the contrary, development seems to have stopped since about four years ago.

Herramientas de análisis del uso de la memoria de intercambio

When we talk of performance in computing, we refer to the relationship between our resources and the tasks that they allows us to complete in a given period of time.

Swatchdog (the "Simple WATCH DOG") is a simple Perl script for monitoring active log files on Unix-like systems such as Linux. It watches your logs based on regular expressions that you can define in a configuration file. You can run it from the command line or in the background, detached from any terminal using the daemon mode option.

Networkctl is a command line utility for viewing a summary of network devices and their connection status. It allows you to query and control the Linux networking subsystem. It is one of the new commands in the new release of systemd which is present in Ubuntu 18.04. It displays the state of the network links as seen by systemd-networkd.

VnStat is a free, open source, light-weight, and console-based Network Traffic monitor. Using this tool, we can easily find how much network bandwidth is consumed and display the result hourly, daily, monthly, or for specific time period. It gathers the usage details of a single or multiple Network interfaces and displays the summary in the command line. We can use this tool to calculate the approximate amount of Internet bandwidth usage per month or per day or for a particular period of time. In this tutorial, we will see how to monitor Network bandwidth in Linux and BSD using vnStat.

TCPflow is a free, open source, powerful command line based tool for analyzing network traffic on Unix-like systems such as Linux. It captures data received or transferred over TCP connections, and stores it in a file for later analysis, in a useful format that allows for protocol analysis and debugging.

Éste es un artículo donde una empresa privada tergiversa las bondades del software libre, de tal forma que se ven como inconvenientes, para mercadear sus productos.


Here are several ways you can take screenshots and edit the screenshots by adding text, arrows etc. Instructions and mentioned screenshot tools are valid for Ubuntu and other major Linux distributions.

This article explains how to convert the pages of a PDF document to image files (PNG, JPEG, and others). For this task we'll be using (you can choose the one you prefer):

¿Alguna vez has querido grabar la pantalla de tu PC con Ubuntu y no has sabido cómo hacerlo? Podemos querer capturar la pantalla de nuestros dispositivos, móviles y de escritorio, por muchas y muy variadas razones. Entre ellas está el compartir en redes sociales, sobre todo capturas de una sola imagen, o hacer tutoriales. Con la cantidad de desarrolladores y programas disponibles que hay para Linux, en muchas ocasiones no sabemos por dónde empezar, pero si lo que queremos es grabar en vídeo la pantalla de nuestro PC, podemos hacerlo con el famoso reproductor VLC Media Player.

Grabar tu pantalla o hacer un pantallazo de tu ordenador usando Linux no tiene por qué ser una tarea complicada. Para hacer esta tarea más sencilla, no descartes usar alguna de las herramientas que te menciono a continuación. Aquí están las 5 mejores herramientas de captura de vídeo, y también las más sencillas y eficaces de usar. 

La tecnología ha acercado nuestro mundo mediante la creación de un conjunto continuo de herramientas innovadoras. Las soluciones de videoconferencia son un buen ejemplo de ello. Permiten a los individuos o a las empresas llevar a cabo una comunicación fluida en todo el mundo sin experimentar la limitación de la distancia geográfica. Se pueden utilizar tanto para comunicaciones uno a uno como de grupo. Esto último los convierte en una opción adecuada para conectar con tus amigos, propietarios de negocios independientes o corporaciones que tienen empleados o agentes en todo el mundo. GNU/Linux, siendo el líder de la industria en sistemas corporativos, ofrece una plétora de software robusto de videoconferencia que permite una conexión sin puertos vigilantes ni código privativo.

In August 2016, I wrote about about why I like the Guayadeque music player, and then I used the six characteristics that seemed most important to me to evaluate other music players: Quod Libet, Gmusicbrowser, DeaDBeeF, Audacious, and Rhythmbox. Kind readers offered quite a few other interesting suggestions. Up for consideration in this installment are VLC, Clementine, QMMP, and Amarok.

PostgreSQL database supports several replication solutions to build high-availability, scalable, fault-tolerant applications, one of which is Write-Ahead Log (WAL) Shipping. This solution allows for a standby server to be implemented using file-based log shipping or streaming replication, or where possible, a combination of both approaches.

gPodder is an open source tool that downloads and manages free audio and video content ("podcasts") for you. The software is written in Python and sports a simple GTK interface. The software package also includes a command-line interface which is called gpo. It lets you listen to podcasts on your computer or on mobile devices. The software is very mature; it's been in development since 2005.

RuneAudio describes itself as "free and open-source software that turns embedded hardware into Hi-Fi music players." By installing RuneAudio on a Raspberry Pi, you transform it into a Hi-Fi media center capable of playing music from multiple sources.

Python can help you skip over the fussy little steps required to publish podcasts. We walk through a custom script for automating the process.

The software racket is like anything else: there are loud projects that get a lot of attention but don't actually get much done, there are heavyweights that move in and make sure things get done, and there are the quiet ones that work with their head down, diligently, only to turn up at the finish line with a work of art. In this analogy, Kdenlive is my personal heavyweight, but Flowblade has lingered in the background, developing and improving into a surprisingly effective and efficient video editor for Linux.

Today I decided to join the videos taken from my smartphone and make a single movie-like file with audio. But the thing is some videos are shot in portrait mode and some are shot in landscape mode. Before joining the files, I thought that it would be better to align every video files in the same orientation (i.e mode). Of course, there are many GUI-based tools and media players, like Smplayer, VLC, have a built-in feature to rotate videos. But I prefer a commandline utility. I know how to use FFMpeg to perform various operations such as converting files to another format, cropping, splitting and joining files and many. I already have compiled most commonly used FFMpeg commands for beginners and posted them in this guide. However, I do not know how to rotate videos using FFMpeg until today. If you ever wanted to rotate videos using FFMpeg, follow the steps given below.

Change audio and video file formats from one type to another with these easy-to-use tools.

The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) provides Linux computers with audio support. Popular distros such as Ubuntu and Arch Linux run it by default, so there's a good chance you're using it right now to play music through your speakers or headphones.

In computing, Batch processing is the execution of a series of tasks in a program non-interactively. In this guide will offer you 4 simple ways to batch convert several .PNG images to .JPG and vice-versa using Linux command-line tools.

Are you a music producer and use Linux as your primary operating system, then music production is going to become easy for you after reading this article. There are good music production software in Linux just as it is in Windows and Mac OS, though a few features may vary but the underlying functionalities mostly are the same.

Los GIFs animados están de moda... otra vez. Parece que hubo unos años en los que estos archivos tuvieron muy poco empuje y fama, pero hace relativamente poco tiempo empezaron a salir como la espuma. Esto fue debido probablemente a su inclusión en redes sociales y programas de mensajería instantánea (tipo WhatsApp o Telegram). El caso es que están aquí, y están para quedarse. Y parece que gozan de muy buena aceptación (hasta yo los utilizo diariamente). Pero... ¿cómo podemos hacernos nosotros nuestras propias animaciones GIF? En esta entrada os voy a explicar 9 formas de crear GIFs animados utilizando exclusivamente software libre. Bien sea a partir de imágenes o bien a partir de vídeos, no va a haber forma de no hacerlos ni GIF que nos resista. Es fácil, sencillo y sobre todo... ¡muy divertido!

Desde la línea de comando es fácil comenzar a hacer un streaming de video.

Peek, un grabador de pantalla GIF animado gratuito y de código abierto para Linux, se actualizó a la versión 1.4.0. Esta versión actualiza la interfaz de usuario a las nuevas pautas de GNOME, al tiempo que soluciona algunos bloqueos.

Green Recorder is a functional desktop screen recorder for Linux systems that was built using GTK+ 3, FFmpeg, and Python.

It support video and audio recording on almost all Linux interfaces and Wayland support (GNOME session) will be added soon.

The supported video and audio formats are: mkv, avi, mp4, wmv and nut.

Home Recording with Ubuntu Studio Part One: Gearing Up

Twenty years ago, the cost of building a studio for the creation of electronic music was pricey, to say the least. The cost of a computer that was suitable for multimedia production could cost the average musician between $1,000 and $2,000. Add in the cost of recording software, additional instruments and equipment, and one could easily spend between $5,000 and $10,000 just to get started.

Home Recording with Ubuntu Studio Part Two: Install-O-Rama

Home Recording with Ubuntu Studio is a three part series of articles that discusses how to create an affordable home recording studio with free and open source software. In Part One: Gearing Up, I discussed the hardware components that are integral to home studio recording, and demonstrated how you can acquire this equipment for under $1,000. In part two of the series, we will start to go into depth about the software aspects of the studio. First, I will walk you through an installation of Ubuntu Studio, a Linux-based operating system that was made for content creation. Next, I will install additional software from the KXStudio repositories and finally, I will make some adjustments to the installation to improve its user experience.

Converseen is a free, cross-platform and opensource batch image processor written in C++ with Qt5 libraries. It allows us to convert, compress, resize, rotate and flip one or multiple images with a few mouse clicks! Converseen relies on ImageMagick for image processing. It supports 100s of image formats including popular formats such as DPX, EXR, GIF, JPEG, JPEG-2000, PDF, PhotoCD, PNG, Postscript, SVG, TIFF and more. Conversion is not just an image converter, it can also convert an entire PDF file into bunch of images.

MPlayer is an extremely versatile open source media player that can be surprisingly useful at the Linux command line.

In a comparison test, we checked out nine free video editing programs: Cinelerra, Flowblade, Kdenlive, Kino, Lightworks, LiVES, OpenShot, Pitivi, and Shotcut.

OBS Studio is a free and open source cross-platform app with which you can create video records of your desktop screen and also live stream directly. You can use it to conveniently share your gaming, art, entertainment activities with, YouTube,, DailyMotion,,, along with custom streaming servers free of charge! It comes with many in-house features that allow you to produce professional videos e.g. Studio Mode lets you live preview and adjust your scenes and sources before making them available for public viewing; you can choose to set any combo of hotkeys to start/stop streams or recordings, switch between scenes, mute audio sources, e.t.c.

Kazam is one of the best screen recording tool for Ubuntu and Linux Mint Desktop. It records the contents of your desktop and create a video file which can be played in most of video player which supports VP8 and WebM video format. While creating video of our desktop we have an option to capture audio sound from input device like Speakers and Microphone. Some of the keys features of Kazam are listed are below :

For Windows users, Windows Movie Maker serves as a great free video editor. And for Mac users, iMovie is an awesome free video editing software. Both of them are used widely for editing videos and creating home videos.

Mac and Windows users have it good when it comes to laying down a rough mix, some vocals or a tasty bassline. With apps like Garageband, FLStudio, Sonar and Reason, the ability to create professional recordings is limited only to expertise and creative flair.

     Ubuntu para diseñadores gráficos   


- Richard Stallman: "uno no es usuario de Facebook, es usado por Facebook"
- Edward Snowden: "Facebook es una compañía de vigilancia rebautizada como red social"

No hay duda de que Internet es una de las columnas vertebrales del mundo moderno de hoy. Sin embargo, parece que nos dirigimos hacia el final del Internet abierto a largo plazo; un Internet que respete la privacidad y seguridad del usuario, y que nos proteja tanto de la censura como del rastreo, parece haber desaparecido hace mucho tiempo. El futuro se está oscureciendo y las corporaciones están ganando más poder.

Este artículo presenta las razones por las cuales Microsoft está "regalando" Windows 10.

Básicamente, te lo regala a cambio de:

  • Tus datos personales
  • Tu localización geográfica
  • Tu comportamiento en línea
    • qué buscas
    • donde compras
    • quienes son tus amigos
    • cuales son tus redes sociales

Es decir, convirtió un sistema operativo en un banco de datos para hacer datamining.

Linux es libre, te garantiza intimidad y privacidad... ¿será esto suficiente para que la gente se cambie a Linux o la mayoría morderá el anzuelo?

Russia's planned ban on Telegram, the highly secure messaging service, could make it easier for U.S. authorities to spy on Russian citizens who switch to online alternatives that are more vulnerable to snooping, Telegram CEO Pavel Durov warned.

En 2016, Rusia aprobó una ley antiterrorista que requiere a los servicios de mensajería colaborar con las autoridades para que estas puedan descifrar sus comunicaciones. En marzo, el Kremlin dio 15 días a Telegram para entregar sus claves de cifrado, pero la compañía se negó. El viernes, un tribunal de Moscú ordenó cortar el acceso a Telegram en el territorio ruso. Ahora los proveedores de Internet han respondido con un bloqueo masivo.

Telegram no se va a doblegar ante Rusia. Eso es lo que asegura el cofundador de la plataforma de mensajería, Pavel Durov, tras los intentos de bloqueo de las autoridades rusas. Asegura que prometió privacidad a sus usuarios y que no piensa romper tal promesa aunque suponga la desaparición del servicio.

Sabemos que estamos vigilados, a través de nuestros móviles, ordenadores y cámaras. Pero no hacemos nada malo y por eso nos sentimos a salvo. Marta Peirano avisa en esta charla que es urgente preocuparse y proteger nuestro anonimato en la red. Video realizado por Daniel Goldmann y editado por Xavi Fortino.

En mayo de 2018 China inauguraba un nuevo método de control social destinado a premiar y castigar a los malos ciudadanos. Esta revolución puede reinventar el concepto de gobernanza y traer una nueva sociedad de clases a largo plazo que los países democráticos pueden sentirse tentados de aplicar.

Una empresa de alquiler de bicicletas anuncia penalizaciones para quienes tengan pocos puntos en su carné de civismo y el Gobierno decide restringir sus movimientos

Plan for access to ‘digital traces’ set to face resistance over data privacy concerns.


GitHub is a treasure trove of some of the world's best projects, built by the contributions of developers all across the globe. This simple, yet extremely powerful platform helps every individual interested in building or developing something big to contribute and get recognized in the open source community.

Make your revision-control experience more useful and powerful with these 13 tricks and tips for Git.

Github is an online platform built to promote code hosting, version control and collaboration among individuals working on a common project.  Projects can be handled from anywhere through the platform. (Hosting and reviewing code, managing projects and building software with other developers around the world) The GitHub platform offers project handling to both open-source and private projects. 

Features offered in regards to team project handling include; GitHub Flow and GitHub Pages. These functions make it easy for teams with regular deployments to in handling the workflow. GitHub pages, on the other hand, provides a place for showcasing open source projects, displaying resumes, hosting blogs among others. 

This gitlab tutorial for beginners is actually a collection of various tutorials that we have already published & purpose of writing this tutorial is actually to make it easy for readers to get all the tutorial they need regarding Git & Gitlab at one place, sort of like single reference point for Git/Gitlab. Here we are going to list out all the things necessary to make you acquainted with Git & Gitlab. We will also be updating this article to add the new tutorials that we publish regarding Git & Gitlab.

Competencia le llaman. A nadie debería sorprender, aunque si entretener, que tras la compra de GitHub por parte de Microsoft por la nada despreciable suma de 7.500 millones de dólares, Google haya decidido invertir en GitLab, la plataforma que sin dudas se perfila como el principal competidor de GitHub.

GitHub is a treasure trove of some of the world's best projects, built by the contributions of developers all across the globe. This simple, yet extremely powerful platform helps every individual interested in building or developing something big to contribute and get recognized in the open source community.

Developers are frequently looking for integrated developer environments (IDEs) that meet specific needs or those that offer a broad range of features and supported languages to use on the regular. There are tons of IDEs to choose from, each with a distinct set of functions, features and tools to streamline the workflow. There's an IDE for practically any programming language you want to work with, while some IDEs support practically every language known to man either natively or by extending capabilities with plug-ins or add-ons. There are also many cross-IDE integrations, with tools building, enhancing and stacking for some of the most impressive, yet incredibly flexible, functionality in the development realm.

In this tutorial, we will explain how to create a new user and grant permissions to that user in MySQL. MySQL is an open source relational database managed system(RDBMS) that enables users and applications to store, organize, and retrieve their data. It has an access control system that consists of permissions that the users can have within tables and databases, we will take a look at some of the options this access control system offers later in this tutorial.

This article consolidates information from several sources into the format I use to setup MySQL Master/Master Replication. The beauty of Linux and open source is that there are many different ways to do this. Please take a look at my references and use them to accommodate any needs you may have. If you have any questions or run into any issues feel free to drop me a line in the comments

By default, the MySQL server listens only on localhost, which means it can be accessed only by applications running on the same host.

Un ejemplo de cómo crear una aplicación Web utilizando Python como lenguaje de programación, Maria como base de datos y Flask como framework.

En el artículo anterior vimos cómo se instalaban todas las herramientas necesarias para desarrollar aplicaciones Android desde Windows. En éste vamos a ver cómo se haría la instalación de las herramientas en un entorno Linux, más concretamente para Ubuntu 14.04, utilizando repositorios cuando sea posible para mantener las herramientas actualizadas.

What's the next step after you've outgrown drag-and-drop programming? We explain how to get started with the LÖVE game engine, which uses the scripting language Lua.

Codeblocks is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for programmers and developers. It comes with predefined tools to develop Qt applications, plugins, console applications, etc. considering one has installed the required tools independently (eg- Qt development tools). Most IDEs come with "project" feature and that's the turning point because some of them requires user to create one before proceeding any further, where in some cases programming (in schools and colleges) exercise don't really need tedious task of creating and setting up "projects" (More to this later).

Regardless of how experienced a coder you are, any software you develop can't be completely free of bugs. So, identifying bugs and fixing them is one of the most important tasks in the software development cycle. While there are many ways of identifying bugs (testing, self review of code, and more), there are dedicated software - dubbed debuggers - that help you understand exactly where the problem is, so that you can easily fix it.


Get a better understanding of datetime in Python with this primer.

Go beyond pandas, scikit-learn, and matplotlib and learn some new tricks for doing data science in Python

"A real coder doesn't use an IDE, a real coder uses [insert a text editor name here] with such and such plugins." We all heard that somewhere. Yet, as much as one can agree with that statement, an IDE remains quite useful. An IDE is easy to set up and use out of the box. Hence there is no better way to start coding a project from scratch

Machine learning and data analysis are two areas where open source has become almost the de facto license for innovative new tools. Both the Python and R languages have developed robust ecosystems of open source tools and libraries that help data scientists of any skill level more easily perform analytical work.

My first look at Python was an accident, and I didn't much like what I saw at the time. It was early 1997, and Mark Lutz's book Programming Python from O'Reilly & Associates had recently come out. O'Reilly books occasionally land on my doorstep, selected from among the new releases by some mysterious benefactor inside the organization using a random process I've given up trying to understand.

These two are similar in some ways but are worlds apart in their approach to solving problems.

In programming, a library is an assortment of pre-compiled pieces of code that can be reused in a program. Libraries simplify life for programmers, in that they provide reusable functions, routines, classes, data structures and so on (written by a another programmer), which they can use in their programs.

For instance, if you are building an application that needs to perform math operations, you don't have to create a new math function for that, you can simply use existing functions in libraries for that programming language.

Examples of libraries in Linux include libc (the standard C library) or glibc (GNU version of the standard C library), libcurl (multiprotocol file transfer library), libcrypt (library used for encryption, hashing, and encoding in C) and many more.

If you're working with images on a computer, you're bound to eventually run into corrupted files that ruin your day. I run into this with animation renders (remember, the best practice here is to render to a sequence of image files and not a single video file). However, animation and visual effects are not the only places where you see image corruption. You can just as easily run into this in other fields. Perhaps you're a photographer and you've shot a bunch of brackets HDRI (High Dynamic Range Imaging) tone mapping and something glitches when transferring files from your camera.

Setting up a motion detection system on Linux is fairly easy and simple. All that we need is a webcam (or laptop), the "motion" package, and a few minutes to set everything up. The purpose for doing this may be private space surveillance, enhancement of personal security, or simply a fun project.

Firefox is one of the most used web browser in the world: it's a free and open source software built by the Mozilla foundation, and it's available for all the major operating systems. The browser has all the features that nowadays are considered standard: tabbed browsing, private navigation, a synchronization system and its functionalities can be extended using third party addons written in Javascript. In this tutorial we will see how to create, build and sign a simple web extension.


Un puerto de red es una ranura que porta un computadora personal. Esta ranura tiene la capacidad de que se le introduzca un cable de red con el cual el dispositivo se conectará a la señal del router

La siguiente es una lista de los números de puerto usados por los protocolos TCP y UDP

This Linux quick tip will show you many different way to get your public IP address from the command line using different tools. Since not all Linux distributions have the same set of packages (programs) installed, some of these example may or may not work on your system. For example, default Red Hat and CentOS installations do not have the dig tool installed.

Configuring a static IP address for your Linux distribution is a fundamental task and should be completed in few easy steps. With the release of RHEL 8 public beta, you can now configure your network interface in a few different ways using NetworkManager utilities.

The ping command is one of the most used utilities for troubleshooting, testing and diagnosing network connectivity issues.

These three tools are often considered the trifecta network troubleshooting tools for a reason.

Pinging ports is one of the most effective troubleshooting technique in order to see if a service is alive or not.

Es algo habitual el querer personalizar al máximo nuestro equipo o servidor linux. Una de las opciones de personalización es cambiar el nombre de la maquina (nombre de host o hotstname). Esto es muy útil ya que nos permite diferenciar nuestro equipo del resto de elementos conectados a la red.

When you visit a website, you type that website's URL into your browser. That URL is made up of regular words that you can easily understand, like "" Behind the scenes, a DNS server associates that name with a server's IP address. This system exists because remembering IP addresses is awful, and no one would do it. Hostnames work the same way, only on a local network.

Just as Internet Protocol address or IP address gives an identification to your device, similarly, the hostname is another parameter through which you can recognize your device. It is a string of human understandable characters. Unlike IP address, hostname of a PC is easy to memorize and recall. For this purpose, one should always know his PC's hostname. In this article, we will tell you how you can find your PC's hostname using Linux Terminal.

Install and use the whois command in Linux.

NC command is for performing maintenance/diagnosis tasks related to network . It can perform operations like read,write or data redirections over the network, similar to how you can use cat command to manipulate files on Linux system. Nc command can be used as a utility to scan ports, monitoring or can also act as a basic TCP proxy.

ncat or nc is networking utility with functionality similar to cat command but for network. It  is a general purpose CLI tool for reading, writing, redirecting data across a network. It is  designed to be a reliable back-end tool that can be used with scripts or other programs.  It's also a great tool for network debugging, as it can create any kind of connect one can need.

Linux and Windows systems have major differences, with different file systems and protocols in use. Sharing files between them can be difficult, especially because they use two different sharing protocols.

Samba es una fantástica herramienta para compartir directorios e impresoras con Windows/Linux.

Samba 4.5 has been released and it is the latest, newest stable branch of the free widely-used, cross-platform, and open-source software project that re-implements the SMB/CIFS networking protocol on UNIX-like platforms.

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). In this tutorial, I will show you how to configure Samba 4 as a domain controller with Windows 10, CentOS 7 and CentOS 6 clients.

Two popular tools for testing network services on a basic level are telnet and Netcat. Here's how to use them.

Cómo se puede utilizar SSH para transferir archivos entre 2 equipos en forma segura.

Secure your systems with multiple SSH keys without losing your mind.

The Openssh set of utilities let us create secure, encrypted connections between machines. In this tutorial we will take a look at some of the most useful options we can use to change the behavior of sshd, the Openssh daemon in order to make your Linux system administration job easier.

Learn to configure SSH port forwarding on your Linux system. Remote forwarding is also explained.

Remote work is challenging but here are five tips to keep your workflow in good shape.

People often need to copy or share files over the network. Many of us are used to using tools such as rsync or scp to transfer files between machines. In this tutorial, we are going to review another tool that can help you copy files between hosts in a network - Dat Copy (dcp).

Dcp does not require SSH to be used or configured in order to copy your files. Furthermore it does not require any configuration to securely copy your files.

Operating Systems can be detected using Ping Command, Ping is a computer network administration software utility, which used to find the Availability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network.

The ip command provides a lot of information on network interfaces. Do you understand what it's telling you?

Did you know that you can assign more that one IP address to a single physical network interface? This technique is quite useful, for example when working with Apache and virtual hosts, as it allows you to access same Apache server by using two different IP addresses.

Connecting your Linux computer to a network is pretty straightforward, except when it is not. In this article I discuss the main network configuration files for Red Hat-based Linux distributions, and take a look at the two network startup services: the venerable network startup, and the controversial NetworkManager.

Linux easily manages multiple network interface adapters. Laptops typically include both wired and wireless interfaces, and may also support WiMax interfaces for cellular networks. Linux desktop computers also support multiple network interfaces, and you can use your Linux computer as a multi-network client, or as a router for internal networks; such is the case with a couple of my own systems.

For a long time on Windows, it has been possible to use a wireless networking adapter to share an Internet connection with other computers. Usually this is done by setting up a "hotspot," or "ad-hoc" style network, broadcasted directly from the wireless networking adapter. It's very easy to do, and it's a killer feature that a lot of Windows users like.

Are you a Linux user? Want to try an alternative DNS service but are unsure how to do it? Not to worry! In this tutorial we'll go over how to change the DNS settings in Linux via a network manager. Additionally, we'll outline why it might be better to switch your entire router over rather than just doing it on individual computers manually.

I‘m on a Dial UP Internet connection under Linux and frequent dial up disconnection causing dns problems. How do I flush DNS cache under UNIX / Linux distribution using a shell prompt?

With the release of Ubuntu's latest operating system, Ubuntu 18.04 LTS, creating a hotspot is easier than ever before. With a wifi hotspot, you can let other wireless devices such as smartphones and televisions etc. make use of your computer's internet connection.

FreeIPA is mainly a directory service, where you can store information about your users, and their rights regarding login, become root, or just run a specific command as root on your systems that are joined your FreeIPA domain, and many more. Although this is the main feature of the service, there are optional components that can be very useful, like DNS and PKI - this makes FreeIPA an essential infrastructural part of a Linux-based system. It has a nice web-based GUI, and powerful command line interface.

FreeIPA is a free and open source identity management tool, it is the upstream project for Red Hat identity manager. Using FreeIPA tool, we can easily manage centralized authentication along with account management, policy (host-based access control) and audit. FreeIPA also provides the services like DNS and PKI.

In our previous article we have already discussed about FreeIPA and its installation steps on CentOS 7 Server, in this article we will discuss how an Ubuntu 18.04 and CentOS 7 machine can be integrated to FreeIPA Server for centralize authentication.

If you're a Linux administrator, there will be times when you have to work with the command line... many times. There's a reason for that. With the command line comes great power and flexibility. For that very reason, you need to know the command line and know it well.

Una guía para optimizar el uso de la tarjeta de red inalámbrica

Starting from version 4.0, Samba is able to run as an Active Directory (AD) domain controller (DC). In this tutorial, I will show you how to configure Samba 4 as a domain controller with Windows 10, CentOS 7 and CentOS 6 clients.

I will be using 3 Systems, one CentOS 7 server and a Windows 10 client for remote management, a CentOS 7 and CentOS 6 client.

In this tutorial, I will show you how to configure an additional domain controller which is one of the key features of SAMBA 4. I will be using the existing Samba 4 server from my previous tutorial as primary domain controller. This setup provides a degree of load balancing and failover for AD services (Ldap schemas and dns ) and configuring it is really easy. We can also use this feature to scale up the environment.

In the last tutorial, I showed you how to configure Samba on Centos 7 by compiling Samba from source since the package supplied by RedHat doesn't support Active Directory. I noticed that there is a repository called Wing which supplies the samba4 rpm with AD support. In this tutorial, I will be using this repository for Samba installation. I will also show how to create a samba share.

I listen to music all the time while working at my PC (which is much of the day). Sometimes I'm pretty much tethered to the desk for long stretches, and sometimes I wander about the office (aka house) for new ideas or just to change my perspective. When I decide to step away, I like to take my music with me. How do I do that? Sure, I could turn the music up to eleven, but the cats (and my wife) aren't too keen on hearing Devin Townsend Project at near blistering levels. And, sometimes I'm the only one in the mood for classical music.

Vamos a usar unos comandos para poder medir la intensidad de la señal en nuestro Linux, Debian Jessie en este caso, cuando estamos conectados por wifi, sin instalar nada.

If you make use of a Linux server to share out directories and files, you'll want to make sure you do everything you can to prevent the likes of SambaCry. Here are a few tips.

Después de años de desarrollo WireGuard, un enfoque revolucionario para las redes privadas virtuales (VPN) finalmente se aceleró al kernel de Linux. Ahora, por fin, WireGuard está en el árbol de códigos de Linus Torvald. Eso significa que WireGuard debería aparecer en la versión 5.6 del kernel de Linux. Esto puede ser tan temprano como abril de 2020.

OpenVPN is an open-source application that allows you to create a secure private network over the public internet. OpenVPN implements a virtual private network (VPN) to create a secure connection. OpenVPN Uses the OpenSSL library to provide the encryption and it provides several authentication mechanisms, such as certificate-based, pre-shared keys, and username/password authentication.

Crear un servidor VPN pptp

This guide describes how to install and configure OpenVPN server in RPM and DEB based systems. In this guide, we are going to use a script called openvpn-install that automates the entire OpenVPN server installation and configuration process. This script helps you to setup your own VPN server in few minutes, even if you haven't used OpenVPN before.

VPN, or virtual private network, is a secure method of connecting remote internet resources together as if they were under the same LAN. OpenVPN is a popular implementation that works on Linux, Windows, and Mac operating systems and can be utilized to create complex, encrypted networks between physically dispersed servers.

The OpenVPN Access Server is a solution built on top of traditional OpenVPN that is used as a complete portal for managing connections, users, and interfaces. It provides the underlying VPN instance, a web interface for managing the suite, and a client that can be used within a web browser.

In this guide, we'll install and configure the OpenVPN Access Server on a CentOS 6.5 VPS instance.

OpenVPN is a full-featured SSL VPN (virtual private network). It implements OSI layer 2 or 3 secure network extension using the SSL/TLS protocol. It is an open source software and distributed under the GNU GPL. A VPN allows you to connect securely to an insecure public network such as wifi network at the airport or hotel. VPN is also required to access your corporate or enterprise or home server resources. You can bypass geo-blocked site and increase your privacy or safety online.

Razones para montar un servidor VPN hay muchas. En mi caso es simple: por mi trabajo me toca viajar y estar lejos de casa muy seguido por lo que necesito acceder a mi red para realizar distintas tareas que requieren que mis equipos se vean unos a otros como si estuvieran conectados a la misma LAN, todo siempre de la manera más segura posible. Si bien es cierto que muchas de esas tareas las realizo sobre SSH, hay otras que prefiero hacerlas a través de un servicio VPN.

In this tutorial, LibreSwan will be installed on the Ubuntu Platform. LibreSwan is an open source implementation of the IPsec protocol, it is based on the FreeSwan project and is available as ready to use the package on RedHat based Linux distributions. However, detailed instructions are given in the source code of the project to compile it on other Linux platforms. After the installation process, a gateway to gateway based IPsec VPN will be configured to secure data from sender to receiver peers.

Details about the IPsec protocol are given in our previous article. However, a brief information about the two parts of the IPsec protocol with respect to LibreSwan is explained below.

In this article, our focus is on the open source implementation of the IPsec protocol. The security of the network layer is ensured by using the IPsec protocol which consists of following two components.

  • Authentication Header (AH) 
  • Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)

Metasploit was created by H. D. Moore in 2003 as a portable network tool using Perl. By 2007, the Metasploit Framework had been completely rewritten in Ruby.

On October 21, 2009, the Metasploit Project announced that it had been acquired by Rapid7, a security company that provides unified vulnerability management solutions. Metasploit's emerging position as the de facto exploit development framework led to the release of software vulnerability advisories often accompanied by a third party Metasploit exploit module that highlights the exploitability, risk and remediation of that particular bug. Metasploit 3.0 began to include fuzzing tools, used to discover software vulnerabilities, rather than just exploits for known bugs. This avenue can be seen with the integration of the lorcon wireless (802.11) toolset into Metasploit 3.0 in November 2006. Metasploit 4.0 was released in August 2011. In this guide we will look into the most important part of using Metasploit, how to search exploits within it! Yeah, like it or not, if you can't search, then you got nada!

Earlier we have learned about how we can configure apache as reverse proxy. As discussed earlier, Reverse proxy is a kind of a proxy that takes http or https request & transfers/distributes them to one or more backend servers. Reverse proxy is useful in many ways, like

  • It can hide the origin serve, thus making it more secure & immune to attacks,
  • It can act as a load balancer,
  • Reverse proxy can also be used to encrypting/decrypting webserver traffic, thus taking some load off from the backend servers.
  • It can also be used for caching static as well as dynamic contents, which also reduces load off the web servers.

Common techniques used to balance network traffic come with advantages and trade-offs.

How to Setup Apache Subversion with Let's encrypt SSL on Ubuntu 18.04

Let's Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority for your website powered by Apache web server. This page shows how to use Let's Encrypt to install a free SSL certificate for Apache web server. You will learn how to properly deploy Diffie-Hellman on your server to get SSL labs A+ score on an RHEL 8.

Even if you encrypt your traffic with HTTPS or even use a VPN, in some cases, your DNS traffic remains open and readily readable to your ISP and the rest of the world. That might not sound like a lot, but it's a major privacy concern. DNS resolves the sites you visit, so reading your DNS records can easily tell the story of your browsing habits.

This Linux tutorial covers some basic network commands which can be useful when troubleshooting networking problems with other servers both within the network and across the Internet, obtaining more information about other servers.

In simplest form network is computers connected together. But during connection issues we have to check the fault within network. Hence in this article we will be discussing diagnostic Linux network command that you should know!!

Linux includes a fairly massive array of tools available to meet almost every need. From development to security to productivity to administration...if you have to get it done, Linux is there to serve. One of the many tools that admins frequently turned to was netstat. However, the netstat command has been deprecated in favor of the faster, more human-readable sscommand.

The netstat command in Linux provides a lot of information about network activities and configuration on a system. It can display information on various network interface statistics. It can be used to check the network traffic, network sockets, listening ports etc. This command provides a huge output many times, so you need to filter the output to extract the content you are looking for. This article provides the general usage of netstat command with its common options.

In software terms, especially at the operating system level, a port is a logical construct that identifies a specific process/application or a type of network service and each network service running on a Linux system uses a particular protocol (the most common being the TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol)) and a port number for communicating with other processes or services.

Linux includes a fairly massive array of tools available to meet almost every need. From development to security to productivity to administration...if you have to get it done, Linux is there to serve. One of the many tools that admins frequently turned to was netstat. However, the netstat command has been deprecated in favor of the faster, more human-readable sscommand.


Apache Guacamole is a clientless HTML5 web application that can be used to access your remote servers and desktops via a web browser. All you need is just a web browser, No additional softwares, plugins required. Install Guacamole on any system and start accessing your remote desktops in no time. It is completely free and open source software.

Ejemplos de uso del comando ip para configurar redes

NetworkManager is the default service in Fedora for interfacing with the low level networking in the Kernel. It was created to provide a high-level interface for initializing and configuring networking on a system without shell scripts. Over the past few Fedora releases, the NetworkManager developers have put in a lot of effort to make it even better. This article covers some of the major improvements that have been implemented in NetworkManager over the past few Fedora releases.

This tutorial shows how to set up a high-availability storage with two storage servers (Debian Jessie) that uses GlusterFS. Each storage server will be a mirror of the other storage server, and files will be replicated automatically across both storage nodes. The client system (Debian 8 as well) will be able to access the storage as if it was a local filesystem. GlusterFS is a clustered file-system capable of scaling to several peta-bytes. It aggregates various storage bricks over Infiniband RDMA or TCP/IP interconnect into one large parallel network file system. Storage bricks can be made of any commodity hardware such as x86_64 servers with SATA-II RAID and Infiniband HBA.

IP addresses (IPv4) are a scarce resource that is shared by different users and devices. Having an IP address conflict means that there are more than one network device or computer that claims the same IP address. IP address conflict may occur when a DHCP server has assigned an IP address to one computer, and the same IP address happens to be statically assigned to another network device by someone.

IP address conflict can also happen when there are more than one DHCP server (typically built in a router) hooked up to the local network, autonomously giving out IP addresses from the same subnet. If you are having flaky network connectivity, and suspect it is due to IP address conflicts, you can use a tool called arp-scan to detect IP address conflicts in Linux.

arp-scan sends out ARP packets on local network to collect (IP address, Ethernet MAC address). If there is more than one Ethernet MAC address claiming the same IP address, it means there is an IP conflict.

DHCP (short for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a client/server protocol that enables a server to automatically assign an IP address and other related configuration parameters (such as the subnet mask and default gateway) to a client on a network.

One of the most important uses of a network is for file sharing purposes. There are multiple ways Linux and Windows, Mac OS X users on a network can now share files with each other and in this post, we shall cover Nitroshare, a cross-platform, open-source and easy-to-use application for sharing files across a local network.

Linux packet stations can be used for mail, chat, and even sending messages long distances via the International Space Station.

Comandos útiles para administrar la red Wi-fi desde la línea de comandos

In the first two parts of this series, we discussed the hardware and software fundamentals for building network-attached storage (NAS) on a Raspberry Pi. We also put a proper backup strategy in place to secure the data on the NAS. In this third part, we will talk about a convenient way to store, access, and share your data with Nextcloud.


Decisions made years ago about which operating system to roll out can affect corporate security today. Of the big three in widespread use, one can credibly be called the most secure.

La narrativa casi mítica de las iniciativas relacionadas con tecnologías digitales, unida a su complejidad y rápida evolución, pueden llevar a confundir la confianza con la fe. Ya habíamos hablado de transparencia e invitamos a la confianza crítica, no ciega. La importancia de la confianza y su fragilidad en las relaciones con los gobernantes es crítica, tal como recordaba Mauricio García Villegas aprovechando el día sin IVA.

Aunque parezca muy extraño, la verdad es que el popular programa de hojas de cálculo de Microsoft, Excel, durante años ha torpedeado las investigaciones genéticas alrededor del mundo por un hecho muy particular: la autocorrección del sistema, llevando al Comité de Nomenclatura Genética Hugo (HGNC) a tomar cartas en el asunto.

Si te preocupa la seguridad en tu sistema operativo, estas son algunas buenas prácticas y consejos que puedes desarrollar en tu distro GNU/Linux favorita para estar un poco más seguro. Ya sabes que por defecto, los sistemas *nix son más seguros que Microsoft Windows, pero no son infalibles. Nada es seguro al 100%. Pero con esa seguridad extra y con la ayuda de estas recomendaciones, estarás un poco más tranquilo en cuanto a posibles ataques.

The BlackArch Linux penetration testing and ethical hacking computer operating system now has more than 2000 tools in its repositories, announced the project's developers recently.

When you created the users account with a default password, you have to force the users to change their password on next login.
This option is mandatory when you were working in organization because old employees might know the default password and they may or may not try to malpractices.
This is one of the security complaint so, make sure you have to take care this in the proper way without any fail. Even your team members can do the same.

At some point in a Linux System Administrator’s career they will need to kick a user off of a system. Usually it is because the user left an open session and you want to reboot the system or do some other maintenance. In this quick tip we will discuss the step’s to forcefully kick a user off of a system.

Rsyslog is a free and opensource logging utility that exists by default on CentOS 8 and RHEL 8 systems. It provides an easy and effective way of centralizing logs from client nodes to a single central server. The centralization of logs is beneficial in two ways. First, it simplifies viewing of logs as the Systems administrator can view all the logs of remote servers from a central point without logging into every client system to check the logs. This is greatly beneficial if there are several servers that need to be monitored and secondly, in the event that a remote client suffers a crash, you need not worry about losing the logs because all the logs will be saved on the central rsyslog server. Rsyslog has replaced syslog which only supported UDP protocol. It extends the basic syslog protocol with superior features such as support for both UDP and TCP protocols in transporting logs, augmented filtering abilities, and flexible configuration options. That said, let’s explore how to configure the Rsyslog server in CentOS 8 / RHEL 8 systems.

Encryption is the process of encoding files in such a way that only those who are authorized can access it. Mankind is using encryption from ages even when computers were not in existence. During war they would pass some kind of message that only their tribe or those who are concerned were able to understand.

Otro artículo con solo gpg:

Cómo se protegen los archivos con una clave usando herramientas libres.

Las empresas deben ser conscientes de su responsabilidad por la seguridad de sus sistemas, la protección de la información de sus clientes y proveedores, y la seguridad de los servicios que prestan.

El verdadero desafío que enfrenta la ciberseguridad no tiene que ver solamente con el terrorismo internacional, el espionaje promovido por los Estados, o los delincuentes cibernéticos. El problema muchas veces radica en el código fuente del software que se utiliza todos los días, ya sea del sistema operativo como de las aplicaciones que están involucradas. Las políticas internas de las empresas privadas y/o públicas deben contemplar mecanismos para garantizar la seguridad de la información que vayan más allá de la instalación de un antivirus para Windows: deberían incorporar el principio de "Privacidad por diseño".

There are plethora of tools available to encrypt and password protect your files and folders. CryptoGo is one among them. It is a simple file encrypter for your day-to-day needs. Using CryptoGo, you can easily encrypt and protect important and sensitive files. It is written in GO programming language that is developed by Google. It is currently in beta stage, but fully functional.

In this Linux quick tip we will discuss password protecting a file in Linux using the OpenPGP encryption and signing tool (GnuPG / gpg). This tool provides digital encryption and signing services using the OpenPGP standard.

The day has come where the security of your data be it on a server, a work desktop, or your personal machine is one of the single most important issues you can take on. Whether you're hoping to secure company information or private email to clients, friends, and/or loved ones, you need to understand how to ensure your data cannot easily be read by the wrong people.

TCP Wrapper is an open source host-based ACL (Access Control List) system, which is used to restrict the TCP network services based on the hostname, IP address, network address, and so on. It decides which host should be allowed to access a specific network service. TCP Wrapper was developed by a Dutch programmer and physicist Wietse Zweitze Venema in 1990 at the Eindhoven University of Technology. He maintained it until 1995, and then released it under BSD License in 2001. In this brief guide, I will explain how to restrict access to Linux servers using TCP Wrappers.

Kali Linux is the industry's leading Linux distribution in penetration testing and ethical hacking. It is a distribution that comes shipped with tons and tons of hacking and penetration tools and software by default, and is widely recognized in all parts of the world, even among Windows users who may not even know what Linux is.

The development team behind the BlackArch Linux ethical hacking and penetration testing operating system have released a new version that adds numerous new tools, updated components, and various improvements.

Learn about a pen-testing tool intended to test the security of WiFi access points for all types of threats.

In my earlier Post you we have learned how to hack windows using Kali Linux. This time we are going to hack android with Kali Linux. We are making use of msfvenom tool within Kali linux which is best combination of Msfpayload and Msfencode.

Una herramienta de hacking todo en uno que incluye Keylogger, Ingeniería social y Phishing para más de 30 redes sociales, entre las que destaca Facebook, Twitter, Instagram.

More is a *nix command line used to display the contents of a file in a console. The basic usage of morecommand is to run the command against a file as shown below:

Iptables is a great firewall included in the netfilter framework of Linux. A firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
​Configuring iptables manually is challenging for the uninitiated. Fortunately, there are many configuration tools available to assist: e.g., fwbuilder, bastille and ufw.

We take a look at ufw - the uncomplicated firewall - on Linux, providing some insights and commands for making changes.

Iptables provides powerful capabilities to control traffic coming in and out of your system.

Linux is well known for being a highly secure platform. One of the reasons for said security is the Netfilter system. For those that don't know, Netfilter is a framework, provided by the Linux kernel, that allows for various networking operations, such as packet filtering, network address translations, port translation, and the ability to block packets from reaching specific locations. For most distributions, Netfilter is implemented through the user-space application, iptables. Although many would agree that iptables is the most powerful security tool you can work with, along with that power comes a level of complexity that stumps many an IT administrator.

A correctly functioning firewall is the most crucial part of the complete Linux system security. By default, Debian and Ubuntu distribution comes with a firewall configuration tool called UFW (Uncomplicated Firewall), is a most popular and easy-to-use command line tool for configuring and managing a firewall on Ubuntu and Debian distributions.

In this tutorial, we are going to show you how to set up a firewall with iptables on a Linux VPS running Ubuntu or CentOS as an operating system. Iptables is an administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT and it is used to set up and manage the tables of IPv4 packet filter rules in the Linux kernel.

Properly configuring and setting up a firewall is one of the most important and crucial things you need to do to secure your server.

I am a new CentOS Enterprise Linux 8 sysadmin. How do I set up a firewall using FirwallD on CentOS 8?

Cómo se puede configurar un Raspberry PI como firewall para la conexión de una casa.

Learn how to disable iptables firewall in Linux temporarily for troubleshooting purpose. Also learn how to save policies and how to restore them back when you enable firewall back.

This guide explains a few different ways to find which service is listening on a particular port in Linux. Most of you know the default port of popular services or processes. For example, the default port of Apache is 80, FTP default port is 21 and SSH default port is 22. You can find the port names and numbers in Linux as described in this guide. The default port numbers can also be changed to any custom ports to secure a Linux server. For instance, the following guides describes how to change the defaults port of Apache, FTP and SSH to different port.

Hoy vamos a ver ejemplos prácticos de NMAP, una potente herramienta utilizada en el ámbito de las redes y sobre todo para auditorias de seguridad, esta es una compilación de técnicas para todos los niveles que seguramente te servirán, y si querés dejar alguna será bienvenida a la lista.

  • Introduction to the Internet Model
  • Introduction to Nmap
  • Installing Nmap on Debian
  • Installing Nmap from sources (all Linux distributions)
  • Nmap basic scan types
  • Nmap scan phases
  • Nmap port states
  • Defining targets with Nmap
  • Related articles

Seguimos avanzando en el estudio de NMAP, esta vez haciendo uso de Scripts, muchos de los cuales nos pueden ayudar a detectar vulnerabilidades u obtener información para comprometer un sistema, en esta oportunidad será algo más intermedio-avanzado.

How to use the NMAP Security Scanner on Linux

If you have been following the NMAP articles I have written then you may have noticed something important about the scans. NMAP prefers to perform a Ping. A Ping to NMAP is a test to verify that the system to be scanned is really on-line and exists. If NMAP is to scan multiple systems on a subnet, or a whole subnet, then it will first test which systems are available to scan.

tcpdump is a well known command line packet analyzer tool. Using tcpdump command we can capture the live TCP/IP packets and these packets can also be saved to a file. Later on these captured packets can be analyzed via tcpdump command. tcpdump command becomes very handy when it comes to troubleshooting on network level.

In my experience as a sysadmin, I have often found network connectivity issues challenging to troubleshoot. For those situations, tcpdump is a great ally.

Computers communicate using networks. These networks could be on a local area network LAN or exposed to the internet. Network Sniffers are programs that capture low-level package data that is transmitted over a network. An attacker can analyze this information to discover valuable information such as user ids and passwords.

Did you knew every time you fill in your username and password on a website and press ENTER, you are sending your password. Well, of course you know that. How else you're going to authenticate yourself to the website?? But, (yes, there's a small BUT here).. when a website allows you to authenticate using HTTP (PlainText), it is very simple to capture that traffic and later analyze that from any machine over LAN (and even Internet). That bring us to this website password hacking guide that works on any site that is using HTTP protocol for authentication. Well, to do it over Internet, you need to be able to sit on a Gateway or central HUB (BGP routers would do - if you go access and the traffic is routed via that).

Wireshark is free and open source, cross platform, GUI based Network packet analyzer that is available for Linux, Windows, MacOS, Solaris etc. It captures network packets in real time & presents them in human readable format. Wireshark allows us to monitor the network packets up to microscopic level. Wireshark also has a command line utility called 'tshark' that performs the same functions as Wireshark but through terminal & not through GUI.

Wireshark, the world's most popular open-source, cross-platform, and free network protocol analyzer software, which is being used by many security experts for analysis and troubleshooting of network issues, has been updated to version 2.0.4.

The development team behind Wireshark, the world's most popular open-source, cross-platform, and free network protocol analyzer software, announced the release of Wireshark 2.0.5 for all supported platforms.

Today, September 7, 2016, the development team behind the world's most popular network protocol analyzer, Wireshark, has proudly announced the release of a new major stable version, namely Wireshark 2.2.

Wireshark, the world's most popular open-source, free and cross-platform network protocol analyzer, has been updated recently to version 2.2.7 and is now available for download on Linux, macOS, and Microsoft Windows platforms.

Dnscrypt is a protocol that is used to improve DNS security by authenticating communications between a DNS client and a DNS resolver. DNSCrypt prevents DNS spoofing. It uses cryptographic signatures to verify that responses originate from the chosen DNS resolver and haven't been tampered with. DNSCrypt is available for multi-platforms including Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Android, iOS, Linux and even routers.

Unbound is a free and open source BSD licensed caching DNS resolver. It also works with DNSSEC and in recursive mode. Coded in C programming language. It means it runs on Linux, Windows, *BSD and Unix-like operating system.

Tanto si estás buscando monitorizar clientes (host) o redes de ordenadores para identificar las últimas amenazas, existe un buen puñado de herramientas de uso libre de tipo IDS que te harán un buen servicio. Sígueme en este análisis de las principales herramientas IDS OpenSource, que te permitirán contar con una detección de intrusiones de primer nivel.

Tiger is a free, open source collections of shell scripts for security audit and host intrusion detection, for Unix-like systems such as Linux. It's a security checker written entirely in shell language and employs various POSIX tools in the backend. It's major purpose is to check the system configuration and status.

For anyone looking to protect their privacy online, Tor is an invaluable tool. It is both one of the most reliable ways to hide your identity and one of the easiest to use.

Distributions: This guide is tested for Debian 9 Stretch Linux, but it may work with other recent Debian versions.
Requirements: This guide assumes that you're running Debian on a VPS or a remote server, since that's the most likely scenario for a VPN.
A working install of Debian Stretch with root access
Difficulty: MEDIUM

A pesar de un descenso generalizado en la detección general de 'malware' en el trimestre, el 'malware' de Linux representó más del 36% de las principales amenazas identificadas en el primer trimestre de 2017, como revela el informe trimestral de seguridad en Internet, Internet Security Report de WatchGuard Technologies.

una forma bastante segura de hacer borrado de archivos y carpetas en nuestro Linux, ya sea porque vamos a vender un HD o PC, o porque queremos estar seguros que lo que borramos sea irrecuperable, todo gracias a un pequeño comando llamado shred.

Linux cuenta con herramientas gratuitas para hacer borrado seguro de la información. Aqui te mostramos una de ellas, para prevenir la fuga de información.

Después del fenómeno mediático de WannaCry, un nuevo ransomware hace su reaparición estelar... con los servidores Linux en el punto de mira.

A server being compromised or hacked for the purpose of this guide is an unauthorized person or bot logging into the server in order to use it for their own, usually negative ends.

Disclaimer: If your server has been compromised by a state organization like the NSA or a serious criminal group then you will not notice any problems and the following techniques will not register their presence.

However, the majority of compromised servers are carried out by bots i.e. automated attack programs, in-experienced attackers e.g. "script kiddies", or dumb criminals.

These sorts of attackers will abuse the server for all it's worth whilst they have access to it and take few precautions to hide what they are doing.

Linux is a reliable, secure choice for your data center. Even so, doing regular checks for rootkits and malware is always an advised best practice. Jack Wallen shows you how.

The Pentbox is a safety kit containing various tools for streamlining PenTest conducting a job easily. It is programmed in Ruby and oriented to GNU / Linux, with support for Windows, MacOS and every systems where Ruby is installed. In this small article we will explain how to set up a honeypot in Kali Linux. If you don't know what is a honeypot, "a honeypot is a computer security mechanism set to detect, deflect, or, in some manner, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems."

Investigadores de ESET descubrieron una variante para Linux del malware KillDisk, que fue usado para atacar a la infraestructura crítica de Ucrania a fines de 2015, así como a otros blancos en el sector financiero del país en diciembre de 2016. Esta nueva variante deja a las máquinas Linux sin posibilidad de arranque, tras cifrar archivos y solicitar un costoso rescate de 250 mil dólares. Pero incluso si las víctimas vacían sus bolsillos, la probabilidad de que los atacantes descifren los archivos es muy baja.

Tor Network is an anonymous network to secure your internet & privacy. Tor network is a group of volunteer operated servers. Tor protects internet communication by bouncing it around a distributed network of relay system run by volunteers. This prevents us from people snooping the internet, they can't learn what site we visit or where is the user physically & it also allows us to use blocked websites.

Una distribución utilizada para no dejar rastro de la actividad.

At KubeCon + CloudNativeCon NA 2018, Shopify and Google detail a Kubernetes security incident reported by a bug bounty security researcher that was quickly remediated before any harm was done.

In this tutorial we will show you how to install Hashicorp Vault on Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. For those of you who didn't know, Vault is an open-source tool that provides a secure, reliable way to store and distribute secrets like API keys, access tokens, and passwords. Software like Vault can be critically important when deploying applications that require the use of secrets or sensitive data.

Tails, the amnesic incognito live system based on the Debian GNU/Linux operating system, has been updated to version 3.13, a release that adds extra security and latest updates.


Do you want to create a homelab? Maybe you want to experiment with different technologies, create development environments, or have your own private cloud. There are many reasons to have a homelab, and this guide aims to make it easier to get started.

Squid is a most popular caching and forwarding HTTP web proxy server used my wide range of companies to cache web pages from a web server to improve web server speed, reduce response times and reduce network bandwidth usage.

Zimbra 8.8.9: Instalar un Certificado gratuito SSL Let's Encrypt

A DHCP Server assigns IP addresses to client computers. This is very often used in enterprise networks to reduce configuration efforts. All IP addresses of all computers are stored in a database that resides on a server machine.

In our earlier tutorial, we have learned to install wildfly 10.1.0. in this tutorial, we will learn to create a load-balancing wildfly cluster. We will be using wildfly verison 10.1.0, which is the latest wildfly version at the time of writing this tutorial. Wildfly supports clustering out of the box & we need not install any special services/packages to get wildfly cluster working.

Una ayuda para quienes elijan telefonía y plantas telefónicas como su tema de exposición.

Squirrelmail is one of the most popular Web-based email clients written in PHP. It has built-in pure PHP support for IMAP and SMTP, and it is designed to render all pages in pure HTML 4.0 with no JavaScript required, for maximum compatibility across browsers. Its installation and configuration is pretty simple. Note that if you have a VPS with WHM/cPanel or DirectAdmin, Squirrelmail comes preinstalled and ready to use with these control panels.

How do I configure Postfix MTA to send eMail using an external cloud-based SMTP server (with username: password) from a web server on Linux or UNIX-like system? How do I configure an Ubuntu server and postfix as the relay server (smarthost)?

Setting up and configuring a mail server is a challenging process, mostly because there are so many different components involved and each component has to be configured to work with the other.

In this tutorial, we will examine the process of installing Zimbra mail server in CentOS Linux environment. Zimbra is my personal favorite when it comes to open-source mail servers as it comes with a number of useful features such as built-in calendar support, email filtering rules, a modern interface for both users and admins, spam and malware scanners, etc. Besides server-side components, Zimbra also boasts of a full-featured web-based email client by which users can access emails, group calendars and document sharing in collaboration mode.

Apache HTTP is a general purpose web server, designed to achieve a balance between flexibility, portability and performance. Apache HTTP has a modular architecture which allows to extend the basic functionality by selecting a set of modules: these modules are compiled as Dynamic Shared Objects (DSO) and they may be enabled/disabled using the LoadModule directive.

Nginx is a free and open source web server, it can also be used as reverse proxy, HTTP load balancer, HTTP Cache and mail proxy. Nginx is available for all the Unix like operating systems and released under BSD-like license.

WordPress is a free, open-source and most widely used content management system in the world. It is a very powerful blogging platform that can be used to host Blog, Portfolio Website and eCommerce platform. WordPress uses Apache/Nginx as web server, MariaDB/MySQL as a database and PHP processing. WordPress provides a huge number of themes and plugins that can be used to customize its functionality.

Lighttpd is a secure, fast, standards-compliant web server designed for speed-critical environments. This tutorial shows how you can install Lighttpd on an Ubuntu 16.04 server with PHP 7 support (through PHP-FPM) and MySQL 5.7. PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation with some additional features useful for sites of any size, especially busier sites. I use PHP-FPM in this tutorial instead of Lighttpd's spawn-fcgi.

Lighttpd is a free, open-source and high-speed webserver specially designed for speed-critical environments. It requires low memory footprint compared to other web servers, such as Apache and Nginx and especially fast for running AJAX applications. Lighttpd also allows us to host web applications written in other programming language using the FastCGI, SCGI and CGI interfaces. Lighttpd is the best choice for you if your server is suffering load problems.

PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative PHP FastCGI implementation that comes with a number of extra features useful for websites of any size, particularly sites that receive high traffic.
It is commonly used in the LEMP (Linux Nginx MySQL/MariaDB PHP) stack; Nginx uses PHP FastCGI for serving dynamic HTTP content on a network. It is being used to serve millions of PHP requests for hundreds of websites on web servers on the internet.

If you manage an Apache server, you may be noticing a large amount of TIME_WAIT connections all of the time. Don't get me wrong, TIME_WAIT is a good thing.. it basically means that your server has closed the connection, but it's being kept around so any delayed packets matched to the connection can be handled properly. We can reduce them, however.

Configuring Apache 2 to Control Browser CachingIn this article, we are going to talk about how to configure Apache2 to control browser caching. If you want to reduce the consumption of your server's resources, improved responsiveness, bandwidth utilization, availability of content during network interruptions, and give your end users a faster experience, then you need to use the caching that will allow all of this.

En el software libre no se trata de "si se puede hacer" sino "de cuántas formas se puede hacer"

In this tutorial, I will show you step-by-step how to install and configure the Nginx web server with Letsencrypt certificate. This guide will tell you about installing Nginx web server, installing the let's encrypt tool, generating SSL certificate lets encrypt, configuring the nginx virtual host with SSL, and creating additional SSL configuration to get the A+ from the SSL test SSL Labs.

This network-attached file server offers a solid array of features and is easy to install and configure.

VLC BitTorrent Plugin Streams Video Torrents Without Waiting For The Complete Download (PPA For Ubuntu And Linux Mint)



Anéctodas que me han cautivado y ayudado a comprender mejor algunos de los intrincados secretos de C y la programación en general

Dive into the differences between these two operating systems that share much of the same heritage and many of the same goals.

Revisando otros artículos me topé con esta pequeña pregunta que me causó mucha gracia, es verdad que una de las primeras cosas que nos sacan en cara usuarios de otros sistemas (excepto FreeBSD) es que no usamos los GUIs. A decir verdad, a mi también me pareció bastante curioso al principio de mi viaje por GNU/Linux. Debo admitir que con el pasar del tiempo, ahora utilizo mucho más la línea de comandos que cualquier otro programa con GUI, y muchas veces prefiero programas dentro de la línea de comando a programas más elaborados con GUIs deslumbrantes.

Typically when you run a command in the terminal, you have to wait until the command finishes before you can enter another one. This is called running the command in the foreground or foreground process. When a process runs in the foreground, it occupies your shell, and you can interact with it using the input devices.

Have you sat down with that grey-haired system administrator and watched what's happening as her (or his) fingers fly over the keyboard? Ever wondered why they're still Stuck In The Stone Age, typing text instead of using the obviously easier mouse and menus? Suspect that person is a geezer who can't learn new techniques?

Out of the hundreds of possible Linux commands you could learn, here are the ten basic ones you really need to know.

timeout is a command-line utility that runs a specified command and terminates it if it is still running after a given period of time. In other words, timeout allows you to run a command with a time limit. The timeout command is a part of the GNU core utilities package which is installed on almost any Linux distribution.

We use the Linux command line every day, and due to the little practicing, we may forget some of the Linux command line tricks. In this post, I'm going to show you some of these Linux command line tips and tricks that you might forget or maybe new to you, so let's get started.

With proper settings, Linux users can be forced to periodically change their passwords. Here's how to view password aging settings and how to configure some of the settings.

The command line provides numerous ways to make our work easier. Here are 15 "tricks" that I use often to make quick work of various tasks

When init enters a runlevel, it calls the rc script with a numeric argument specifying the runlevel to go to. rc then starts and stops services on the system as necessary to bring the system to that runlevel. Though typically called at boot, the rc script can be called by init to change runlevels.

Tmux is a terminal multiplexer an alternative to GNU Screen. In other words, it means that you can start a Tmux session and then open multiple windows inside that session. Each window occupies the entire screen and can be splitted into rectangular panes.

The Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator has listed in the Domains and Competencies to be able to 'Analyze text files'. This article will cover the use of six commands to analyze the contents of a text file. The six commands are: wc, cat, head, tail, more and less.

There are times when you may need to compare two files to check if they are the same. For instance, if you have two or more servers all running the same Operating System (OS) and on one server a file is causing issues then you can see if they are different. If they are different then it may be as simple as copying the one file from the working server to the failing server.

The ls command is one of the basic commands that any Linux user should know. It is used to list information about files and directories within the file system. The ls utility is a part of the GNU core utilities which are installed on all Linux distributions.

Beginners guide to ls command. Learn ls command with 12 examples which can be used in your daily Linux tasks.

The ls command is a feature-rich command-line utility. Find out eleven different ways to use it.

Learn some of the Linux 'ls' command's most useful variations.

Configure System Locale on Debian 9We will show you how to configure system locale on Debian 9. The system locale defines the language and country-specific setting for the programs running on your system and the shell sessions. You can use locales to see the time and date, numbers, currency and other values formatted as per your language or country. Configuring system locale on Debian 9 is a fairly easy task and it should be configured in less than 10 minutes.

If you are new to this series (and to Linux), take a look at our first installment. In that article, we worked our way through the tree-like structure of the Linux filesystem, or more precisely, the File Hierarchy Standard. I recommend reading through it to make sure you understand what you can and cannot safely touch. Because this time around, I'll show how to get all touchy-feely with your directories.

The Linux command line may be a bit hard to learn, but it's worth it. Reason being, it's so powerful that you can do almost everything with it that you can otherwise do using UI. At HowtoForge, we have already discussed a plethora of command line tools (that let you do different kind of operations), and here, in this tutorial, we will discuss a utility which you can use to shut your system down.

The cat command is one of the most widely used command in Linux. The name of the cat command comes from its functionality to concatenate files. It can read and concatenate files, writing their contents to the standard output. If no file is specified or if the input file name is specified as a single hyphen (-) it reads from the standard input.

More is a *nix command line used to display the contents of a file in a console. The basic usage of morecommand is to run the command against a file as shown below:

Depending on the kind of work you do on the command line in Linux, you may want a utility that can act as a Swiss army knife of quick text editing. Gladly, there exists a tool dubbed tr, which qualifies for this role. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basics of tr using some easy to understand examples.

Copying directories on Linux is a big part of every system administrator routine.

If you have been working with Linux for quite some time, you know how important it is to keep your folders well structured.

Just like cp for copying and rm for deleting, Linux also offers an in-built command for moving and renaming files. It's called mv. In this article, we will discuss the basics of this command line tool using easy to understand examples. Please note that all examples used in this tutorial have been tested on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS.

At any given time on the command line, you are in a directory. So it speaks for itself how integral directories are to the command line. In Linux, while the rm command lets you delete directories, it's the mkdir command that allows you create them in the first place. In this tutorial, we will discuss the basics of this tool using some easy to understand examples.

If you a regular Linux command line user, I am sure you must have used the cat command. The tool is mostly used for displaying contents of a file, although it provides many other small but useful features. In this article, we will discuss the cat command in detail, explaining some of its key features.

We've already discussed the Linux cat command in one of our earlier tutorials. As you may be aware, the cat command is mainly used for displaying file contents in output. However, what you may not be aware of is that there exists a command that does exactly opposite of what cat does.

Sometimes, while working on a Linux machine, you'll see that an application or a command line process gets stuck (becomes unresponsive). Then in those cases, terminating it is the only way out. Linux command line offers a utility that you can use in these scenarios. It's called kill.

Have you ever faced the situation where you launched an application and suddenly while you are using the application it becomes unresponsive and unexpectedly crashes. You try to start the application again, but nothing happens because the original application process never truly shut down completely.

Here are several options for terminating a program in Linux using the command line or a graphical interface.

If you are a Linux command line user, and your work involves playing with text files, you should know (if not already) that there are many command line utilities that may be of great help to you in different situations. For example, there exists a tool dubbed 'uniq' that reports or even deletes repeated lines in a file.

In this article, we will discuss 'uniq' through easy to understand examples. But before we do that, it's worth mentioning that all examples and instructions mentioned in this tutorial have been tested on Ubuntu 16.04LTS.

Linux and UNIX source software often comes with security and other patches. You can download them from Internet or project home page. There is a command called patch that apply a diff file or patch to an original source tree.

There might be situation where you have installed a software by compiling it from the source code. Download the security patch and apply it to the original source code and re-compile the software.

If you've been using the command line for a long time, it's easy to take the commands you use every day for granted. But, if you're new to the Linux command line, there are several commands that make your life easier that you may not stumble upon automatically. In this article, I cover the basics of two commands that are essential in anyone's arsenal: sort and uniq.

Pretty much regardless of your role, if your regular work involves doing stuff on the command line in Linux, you may find yourself in a situation where-in you'd want to compare two files using a command line utility. There are several command line tools that let you do this, and one among them is the 'cmp' command.

In this tutorial, we will discuss 'cmp' through easy to understand examples. But before we do that, it's worth mentioning that all examples and instructions mentioned in this tutorial have been tested on Ubuntu 16.04LTS.

While working on the command line in Linux, one thing that you'd have probably missed is how the output gets displayed in terminal. I mean, the way it fits the available area. Have you ever found yourself stuck in a situation where-in the requirement was to make sure the output of a command fits a particular width?

Sometimes, while working on the command line in Linux, you might want to create a new file. Or, there may be times when the requirement is to change the timestamps of a file. Well, there exists a utility that can you can use in both these scenarios. The tool in question is touch, and in this tutorial, we will understand its basic functionality through easy to understand examples.

En este articulo vamos a ver para que sirve el comando «whoami», que podemos hacer con el y que información muestra en nuestro terminal.

In some situations, you might want to truncate (empty) an existing file to a zero-length. In simple words, truncating a file means removing the file contents without deleting the file.

In this article we are going to take a look at the pwd command, one of the most basic commands in Linux.

Linux tiene una herramienta incorporada para capturar los procesos actuales en el sistema, es una herramienta presente en todas las distribuciones, y estoy hablando de PS, que hoy veremos algunos ejemplos prácticos para el día a día, si tenes alguno interesantes sos bienvenido a comentarlo.

Every system administrator has to deal with plain text files on a daily basis. Knowing how to view certain sections, how to replace words, and how to filter content from those files are skills you need to have handy without having to do a Google search.

I am a new Linux user. I wanted to find the text called "foo" and replaced to "bar" in the file named "hosts.txt." How do I use the sed command to find and replace on Linux or -like system?

Para poder controlar los servicios de nuestro sistema operativo Linux, vamos a necesitar saber todo lo que podamos del comando systemctl, que es el encargado de centralizar el manejo del sistema, así que trataré de mostrar las posibilidades con ejemplos prácticos.

If you are a Linux newbie, and your work involves doing stuff through the command line, then it goes without saying that you must be spending a lot of time on the terminal window. As you'd likely agree, there are some commands that we tend to use very frequently, like ls, cp, and rm. However, there are some others that are comparatively less used. In this tutorial, we will discuss one such, less frequently used command: Exit.

Sometimes you want to monitor what new information is being written to a file (think of log files), or for whatever reasons, want to access the last few lines of a file. Well, there's a command line utility that lets you do this in Linux, and it's call tail.

The cut command is the canonical tool to remove "columns" from a text file. In this context, a "column" can be defined as a range of characters or bytes identified by their physical position on the line, or a range of fields delimited by a separator.

The paste command does the exact opposite: it merges several input files to produce a new delimited text file from them. We are going to see how to effectively use Paste command in Linux and Unix.

Sometimes, when you execute a command in Linux, you might want to run it for a set amount of time. There exists a command line utility - timeout - that's specifically developed for this purpose. In this article, we will discuss the basics of this command using some easy to understand examples

Basically Linux grep command is short form of "Global Regular Expression and Print). At the basic level Linux grep command is used for searching or filtering the plain text data using some form of regular expression.

GREP is a command line search utility or tool to filter the input given to it. Grep got its name from ed editor as g/re/p (global / regular expression / print). Grep command can improve a command output by filtering out required information. Grep will become a killer command when we combined it with regular expressions. In this post we will see how to use grep in a basic way and then move on some advanced and rarely used options. In our next couple of posts we will see what grep can do with the help of regular expressions.

grep is a command-line utility that allows searching of words and/or patterns in a file or group of files. Its name comes from the ed command g/re/p (globally search a regular expression and print). Grep does a global search by keyword or regular expression and print all matching lines on the standard output.

When we run certain commands in Unix/Linux to read or edit text from a string or file, we most times try to filter output to a given section of interest. This is where using regular expressions comes in handy.

Need a hex dump for a text file? Looking for a command line utility that can do this? Well, you are in luck, as there exists a command dubbed xxd that can do this for you. In this tutorial, we will discuss xxd using some easy to understand examples.

El comando linux find es uno de los comandos linux más útiles que existen, sin embargo es también uno de los comandos que menos se conocen y que los usuarios nuevos aprecian como "muy complicado" sin embargo, una vez que sabes como funciona te das cuenta que es simple y poderoso cuando tienes 1,800,000 archivos y deseas encontrar "unos" pocos archivos que cumplen ciertos parámetros, este comando "simplifica tu vida" de forma extraordinaria y si eres un Administrador de Sistemas Linux o piensas serlo, este es un comando que debes dominar para que tu sistema linux sea más confortable.

Ver también:

The find command has a huge array of options to help you locate exactly the files you're looking for on a Linux system. This post explores a series of extremely useful commands.

It isn't hard to find what you're looking for on a Linux system - a file or a command - but there are a lot of ways to go looking.

HTTP clients are utility software that enables you to download files over the Internet. Apart from being able to download files remotely, these command line tools can be used for other tasks such as debugging and interacting with web servers.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used for transferring files between a client and a server on a computer network. The very first FTP applications were made for the command line before GUI Operating Systems even became a thing and while there are several GUI FTP clients, developers still make CLI-based FTP clients for users who prefer using the old method.

Cuando deseen descargar una página web, un archivo por protocolo http o un sitio web completo con todo su contenido: wget es la solución

We'll show you 10 practical examples of Wget Command. Wget is a free utility that can be used for retrieving files using HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP which are considered as the most widely-used Internet protocols.

Wget is a useful GNU command line utility used to download files from internet. This utility can download the files from servers using popular protocols like HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP. It runs in the background (non-interactive) and hence can be used in scripts and cron jobs. GNU Wget was written by Hrvoje Nikšić and currently, it is under Tim Rühsen, Darshit Shah, and Giuseppe Scrivano.

curl is an excelent download manager because support progress bar and allows to pause/resume the download from the last downloaded byte.

The Linux xargs command may not be a hugely popular command line tool, but this doesn't take away the fact that it's extremely useful, especially when combined with other commands like find and grep. If you are new to xargs, and want to understand its usage, you'll be glad to know that's exactly what we'll be doing here.

Let us start with these command line tricks to increase productivity at the Terminal. I have found them over the years and I'm now going to share with you.

Solo para curiosos en herramientas para administración.

Los administradores de sistemas Linux, como su propio nombre indica, tienen que llevar en muchos casos el control de más de un equipo, y en ocasiones de más de una red de equipos al mismo tiempo. Desde fuera parecería muy complicado si no fuese por la cantidad de comandos en sistemas Linux que existen para facilitar estas labores de mantenimiento y soporte.

Let's take a look at three solid file conversion tools for the Linux command line.

bc (Basic Calculator) is a command line utility that offers everything you expect from a simple scientific or financial calculator. It is a language that supports arbitrary precision numbers with interactive execution of statements and it has syntax similar to that of C programming language.

Muchas veces el administrador necesita ejecutar comandos basados en cálculos matemáticos, con bc se pueden realizar estos cálculos al interior del comando.

There are quite a few interesting commands for doing math on Linux systems, including the expr, factor, jot, and bc commands.

Cómo obtener ayuda fácil sobre los comandos (Explain)

Do you ever know that Linux is not just for serious work for admins and professionals, but you can play word games, speak to your Linux terminal or create beautiful ASCII pictures etc.? Yes, Linux is really fun, if you know the correct commands. Let's look at some of these commands that can bring a smile to your face instantly or which can be used at the end of a day-long hectic work to ease the pressure and bring some relief on to you, so that you can leave home in a good mood.

In this tutorial, we are going to discuss how we can view or modify date & time values in our RHEL/CentOS 7 servers. We are going to discuss 3 commands which we can use to view/modify date & time for our systems. Before we discuss the commands, let's learn in brief about two different types of clocks available i.e. system clocks & Hardware clocks,

Este artículo muestra otras formas de usar el grep y otros comandos para contar palabras.

We all are aware about the most popular command called 'useradd' or 'adduser' in Linux. There are times when a Linux System Administrator asked to create user accounts on Linux  with some specific properties, limitations or comments.

In Linux, a 'useradd' command is a low-level utility that is used for adding/creating user accounts in Linux and other -like operating systems. The 'adduser' is much similar to useradd command, because it is just a symbolic link to it.

Hace algunos días escribí el post "Comandos linux: find con ejemplos" y me enfoqué en que cualquier persona nueva en esto de los comandos linux entendiera como funciona el comando find con algunos ejemplos sencillos, pero algunas de las personas que comentaron el post en Facebook y otras redes pidieron que se mostraran formas más avanzadas de utilizar el comando linux find y como sacarle utilidad con ejemplos mas poderosos. Aquí te digo como usar el comando find en linux para coas un poco mas avanzadas.

[ads]El comando linux find es uno de esos comandos que todo usuario de linux debería saber "casi por obligación" por que simplemente es muy poderoso cuando se trata de tener la información del archivo exacto que se necesita, pero precisamente lo importante es poder hacer algo con el o los archivos que se encuentran y el comando linux find es el comando correcto para esto.

Hace algún tiempo escribí sobre el comando find y una segunda parte donde explicaba con ejemplos como se usa el comando linux find para encontrar diversos tipos de archivos, como buscar con diferentes condiciones, opciones y demás.

Sometimes, while working on the command line in Linux, you need to know more about a file. For example, you may want information like file's size, inode number, access permissions, time of last access or modification, and more. You'll be glad to know that there exists a command line utility stat that provides all this information in one go.

Un comando para saber qué están haciendo los usuarios del sistema

I felt a bit bored today. While digging in Google, I found this cool and useless hack. There is an option to change the sudo prompt to something cool or funny. Whenever I use a sudo command, it will display "[sudo] password for ..." statement. Let us consider the following example.

The terminal is a very powerful tool, and it's probably the most interesting part in Unix. Among the plethora of useful commands and scripts you can use, some seem less practical, if not completely useless. Here are some Bash commands that are fun, and some of them are useful as well.

In case you are running Linux on a machine that you normally use alone, say on a laptop, entering a password each time you invoke sudo can become so boring in the long run. Therefore, in this guide, we will describe how to configure sudo command to run without entering a password.

Sudoers is the default sudo security policy plugin in Linux, however, experienced system administrators can specify a custom security policy as well as input and output logging plugins. It is driven by the /etc/sudoers file or alternatively in LDAP.

Yo lo hago con [CTRL]+[Z] para detener el proceso y luego doy fg (foreground) si quiero que vuelva a la vida o bg si quiero que siga funcionando sin verse (background)

Let us you say ran a program. You didn't know it took so long to finish. It keep running several minutes. You don't want to wait that much long. Because, you have some other important programs to run on the queue. Have you ever been in a situation like this? No worries! I just found a simple trick to suspend a process and resume it later. What I am going to do is pause the currently running process, do some other important tasks, and then resume the stopped processes once I completed all processes.

This can be very useful when you have less RAM or Processor to do multi-task. You can pause the running processes at any time, and resume them later when you're ready, without having to start them all over again. Sounds good? Indeed! This brief tutorial describes how to suspend or pause a running process and resume it later in -like operating systems.

¡Cómo ejecutar un comando como parte de un comando!

When you type a filename on the command line (at a shell prompt), you may use filename completion to save time and typing. A popular feature, filename completion lets you type the first few letters of a file or directory name and use the TAB key to ask the shell to fill in the rest.

Bash does not support native regular expressions like some other standard programming languages. The Bash shell feature that is used for matching or expanding specific types of patterns is called globbing. Globbing is mainly used to match filenames or searching for content in a file. Globbing uses wildcard characters to create the pattern. The most common wildcard characters that are used for creating globbing patterns are described below.

These hidden features and shortcuts will help you perform some of the most common Bash functions more efficiently.

How do I save the terminal output to a file when using BASH/KSH/CSH/TCSH under Linux, macOS, *BSD or Unix-like operating systems?

Una tubería o pipe es en realidad una canalización disponible para UNIX/Linux y que resulta de lo más práctico. Pero para entender bien lo que es una tubería, debes saber que en un entorno *nix tiene 3 corrientes built-in de datos. Eso, para el que no lo sepa, quiere decir que los datos pueden viajar hacia o desde tres puntos.

We're not talking PVC here, but these command-line pipes are just as useful, and they hold a ton of value for system administrators.

Let's say you're editing a configuration file in the Linux "vi" editor, and suddenly need to look up some data in another file? On a regular GUI system, this wouldn't be a problem. You just open the second file, check when you need, and then switch back to the first program. On a command line, it isn't that simple. Executing a process via the CLI blocks further input on any other program. Take this sleep command, for example,:

Loops are one of the fundamental concepts of programming languages. Loops are handy when you want to run a series of commands over and over again until a specific condition is met.

There are techniques from traditional programming environments that can help. Some basic tools like using an editor with syntax highlighting will help as well. There are builtin options that Bash provides to make debugging and your everyday Linux System Administration job easier.

Nowadays, I spend more time in Terminal, trying to accomplish more in CLI than GUI. I learned many BASH tricks over time. And, here is the list of useful of BASH shortcuts that every Linux users should know to get things done faster in their BASH shell. I won't claim that this list is a complete list of BASH shortcuts, but just enough to move around your BASH shell faster than before. Learning how to navigate faster in BASH Shell not only saves some time, but also makes you proud of yourself for learning something worth. Well, let's get started.

Spend enough time on the command line and you'll eventually want to do many tasks...that take some intricate commands...repeatedly. A good example of this, is making thumbnails of photos.

In almost all programming language we make use of function which is nothing but the code written as logical block for executing repetitive or recurring execution. In shell programming also we do have something called as bash function which acts the same way.In this post we will be learning more about bash function.

Function is a reusable block of code. Often we put repeated code in a function and call that function from various places. Library is a collection of functions. We can define commonly used function in a library and other scripts can use them without duplicating code.

There are a number of hidden files tucked away in your home directory. If you run macOS or a popular Linux distribution, you'll see a file named ".bashrc" up near the top of your hidden files. What is bashrc, and why is editing bashrc useful?

(Recuerden que solo funciona para quienes utilizan bash como shell, si se utiliza tcsh, zsh u otro, la cosa cambia pero sigue el mismo formato)

Una guía para personalizar el prompt... ¿que es el prompt?, es el indicador de la terminal que indica que el shell está aguardando hasta que el usuario indique un comando para ser ejecutado, con este artículo podrá cambiar de:



rnaranjo@servidorlinux etc >

y muchas más.

Linux depends upon administrative user permission. Without the elevated permission of root, many commands could not be run. For distributions, such as Red Hat, gaining root permissions means changing to the root user with the command su. Other distributions, such as Ubuntu Linux, opt for a different route. That route is sudo. By taking advantage of the sudo system, an administrator gains far more control over who can do what on a system. An added benefit of using the sudo command is that all sudo incidents are logged (Red Hat-based systems log to /var/log/secure whereas Debian-based systems log to /var/log/auth.log).

Telling your Linux shell where to look for executable files is easy, and something everyone should be able to do.

What's behind the Linux umask?

All you need to know about Linux umask - how the settings work and why they're important.

Vamos a ver las 5 mejores shell para GNU/Linux. En nuestros sistemas favoritos, comparados con otros privativos, es mucho más frecuente utilizar la consola de comandos, con más motivo aún si eres desarrollador o administrador de sistemas.

ZSH, también llamado Z shell, es una versión extendida de Bourne Shell (sh), con muchas características nuevas y soporte para plugins y temas. Dado que se basa en el mismo shell que Bash, ZSH tiene muchas de las mismas características. Empezar a utilizarlo es muy sencillo.

On Unix-like operating systems, tcsh (pronounced "tee-see-shell" or "tee-see-ess-aysh") is a command-line shell based on the C Shell. Its key features are programmable command completion and command-line editing

tcsh ("tee-see-shell") is a Unix shell based on and compatible with the C shell (csh). It is essentially the C shell with programmable command-line completion, command-line editing, and a few other features. It is the native root shell for BSD-based systems such as FreeBSD.

Artículo que describe los diferentes emuladores de terminal en Linux

Today, I came across an useful web service called ExplainShell that helps you to find what each part of a Linux command does. Of course, you can refer man pages or do a quick google search to know about a Linux command. However, ExplainShell breaks down the long and confusing commands and tells you exactly what each part does. All you need to do is just copy and paste a Linux command in ExplainShell website, and it will instantly display what each part of a Linux command means. Each part of the commend is explained on its own in a box layout, and highlighted when you move the mouse cursor over it. ExplainShell actually takes the details of the each command from manpages. Instead of going through the manpage of a command manually, you can use ExplainShell to get the details of any commandline argument faster and easier.

Si necesitas utilizar un listado para hacer comandos, puedes hacer un script para que vaya haciendo los comandos línea por línea.

When you run a command, it produces some kind of output: either the result of a program is suppose to produce or status/error messages of the program execution details. Sometimes, you may want to store the output of a command in a variable to be used in a later operation.

I try to be a peaceful soul, but some things make that difficult, like tiny console fonts. Mark my words, friends, someday your eyes will be decrepit and you won't be able to read those tiny fonts you coded into everything, and then you'll be sorry, and I will laugh.

Fortunately, Linux fans, you can change your console fonts. As always, the ever-changing Linux landscape makes this less than straightforward, and font management on Linux is non-existent, so we'll muddle along as best we can. In this article, I'll show what I've found to be the easiest approach.

We'll show you How to kill a process in Linux . One of the major advantages of Linux is the ability to terminate a process without having to reboot your server. In this tutorial, we will show you how to kill a process in Linux using the kill, pkill and killall commands.

Executable and Linkable Format

An extensive dive into ELF files: for security incident response, development and better understanding

We often don't realize the craftsmanship of others, as we conceive them as normal. One of these things is the usage of common tools, like ps and ls. Even though the commands might be perceived as simple, under the hood there is more to it: ELF binaries. Let's have an introduction into the world of this common file format for Linux and -based systems.

A process is the abstraction used by the Linux operating system to represent a running program. Each process in Linux consists of an address space and a set of data structures within the server kernel. The address space contains the code and libraries that the process is executing, the process's variables, its stacks, and different additional information needed by the kernel while the process is running.

Identify processes that make heavy use of the CPU and memory, set the priority of processes renice and kill processes. Traditionally, in any unix 'ps' it is the command to identify the processes with their respective characteristics, qualities and states. This traditional command in GNUs systems supports 3 types of syntax for the parameters, namely: UNIX, BSD and GNU.  To simplify this post will use the syntax which allows grouping the various options and require.

One of the most basic command to monitor processes on Linux is the top command. As the name suggests, it shows the top processes based on certain criterias like cpu usage or memory usage.

This time, we'll take a look at inxi, a Perl script that interrogates your system.

pstree is a powerful and useful command for displaying running processes in Linux. Like its companion ps, it shows all running processes currently active on your logged-in system. The main difference is that the processes are organized in a tree instead of in a list. This tree shows processes in a parent-child relationship. The parent process is the spawning process, which creates all the child processes below it.

Monitoring memory utilization on Linux box is one of the important task for Linux Administrator to make the system up and running smoothly. There are plenty of commands/tools are available to monitor memory utilization on Linux, each one is working in different manner, today we are going to show you

A while ago, we have written about 'script' command which can be used to record the Terminal activities in Linux. For more details about 'script' command, check the following guide.

We already knew how to check if a Linux system is physical or virtual machine. Now, it is time to find out if the installed Linux OS is either 32 bit or 64 bit. If your Linux system has GUI, it is really easy then. Just navigate to System Settings -> Details, and there you go, you will know the architecture. In CLI based Linux systems, it is bit different. This guide will explain you how to check if a Linux system is 32 bit or 64 bit. It is not that difficult.

I need to find out if my Linux server is running on 32-bit or 64-bit system. How do I know if my Linux is 32 bit or 64 bit? How do I find out the CPU architecture on Linux and running kernel?

Una explicación más informal del uso y manejo de los permisos de archivo para usuarios y grupos en Linux

Este artículo explica brevemente qué significan los permisos y cómo se utilizan

what is an inode and how does it relate to a file system? Glad you asked.

Cómo tener un directorio compartido previniendo que se borren archivos críticos de él

If you have high hopes of becoming a Linux administrator, there are plenty of tools you'll need to know and know well. Some of those tools are limited to actions taken locally on the machine with which you are working: tools like iptables, make, top, diff, tail, and many more. These tools, isolated to the local machine, are invaluable to your task of managing those Linux servers and desktops. And even though GUI tools are available to help you with those tasks, understanding the command line is tantamount to understanding Linux.

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol used for an encrypted connection between a client and a server. The ssh client creates a secure connection to the SSH server on a remote machine. The encrypted connection can be used to execute commands on the server, X11 tunneling, port forwarding, and more.

As we all know, SSH is secure shell protocol which is used to securely communicate with other systems on the network. There are many chances that you want to automate tasks, such as synchronization files between two systems, automatic backup between two or more systems using your own scripts. In such cases, the two systems must be login to each other without having to enter the password manually by the user. In this brief guide, we are going to configure passwordless SSH login in -like systems. That means, we don't need to enter the password when we SSH to other system on the network.

With security becoming increasingly important in today’s modern world of information theft and privacy concerns, keeping your server safe and secure has almost become a necessity.

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol used for secure connection between a client and a server and supports various authentication mechanisms.

Secure your systems with multiple SSH keys without losing your mind.

SSH (Secure SHELL) is one of the most used network protocol to connect and login to remote Linux servers, due to its increased security provided by its cryptographic secure channel established for data flow over insecure networks and its Public Key Authentication.

Let's imagine that you are working in server through ssh, for some reason your session get disconnected like, internet issue or power failure or your Local PC get rebooted, etc,.

This is quite a common task for Linux system administrators, when there is need for execution of some command or a local Bash script from a one Linux server or server on another remote Linux machine over SSH.In this article you will find the examples of how to run remote ssh command in Linux to Show result locally.Run remote ssh command in Linux

How SSH Port Became 22

The default SSH port is 22. It is not a co-incidence. This is a story of how it got that port. I (Tatu Ylonen) haven't told it before.

We all know that the running processes or command will be terminated when disconnecting the remote SSH session. Is there any ways to keep the processes running after ending ssh session?

Yes, it is possible. We are going to discuss about this in the today session with different methods.

The /proc file system brings the processes on your systems into view in some very useful ways, but only if you take the time to cd over to /proc and see all it can tell you.

Tal vez sea cierto que no todos los usuarios están hechos para ella, pero si te apetece darte una vuelta por esta guía de supervivencia sin «X» (interfaz gráfica de Linux) y descubrir todo lo que se puede hacer desde una simple línea de comandos, ¡ponte cómodo y empecemos!

Guía para administradores novatos en lenguajes script

Listado organizado de 450 comandos 

Este comando sirve para ejecutar un comando simultáneo en varios servidores

In our the previous post we saw how to use Basic regular expression along with grepping to search for words and played across different basic regular expressions. In this post, we will see how to use extended regular expressions to increase the power of grep command even better than Basic regular expression.

En la comunidad de Linux siempre hay usuarios a favor de unas determinadas funciones o partes de software y otros retractores de lo mismo. Ya sea con distribuciones como con escritorios o aplicaciones siempre se busca dar la opinión al respecto y llamar a los usuarios a utilizar su software favorito en vez del otro. En esta ocasión la comunidad expresa sus quejas contra el software systemd mediante una campaña denominada "Boicot a Systemd".

Since Linux is a multi-user operating system (in that it allows multiple users on different computers or terminals to access a single system), you will need to know how to perform effective user management: how to add, edit, suspend, or delete user accounts, along with granting them the necessary permissions to do their assigned tasks.

When you administer a Linux machine that houses multiple users, there might be times when you need to take more control over those users than the basic user tools offer. This idea comes to the fore especially when you need to manage permissions for certain users. Say, for example, you have a directory that needs to be accessed with read/write permissions by one group of users and only read permissions for another group. With Linux, this is entirely possible. To make this happen, however, you must first understand how to work with users, via groups and access control lists (ACLs).

Learn how to use links, which make tasks easier by providing access to files from multiple locations in the Linux filesystem directory tree.

In our previous article, we have described how to count the number of files and subdirectories inside a given directory. This guide will show you how to rename all files and directories names to lowercase in Linux.

gcp (Goffi's cp) is an advanced file copier tool, heavily inspired from the traditional cp command utility, but with some additional features. It is completely free and open source software, released under GNU General Public License. One of the issue I have often noticed while using cp command is It doesn't display the copy progress. Say for example, when I am copying a large file, I really don't know how long it is going to take, or what is the currently copied percentage. Other than looking at the blinking cursor icon in the Terminal and the hard drive indicator while copying large files, I have no idea whether copying progress is really going on or not. Here is where gcp comes in handy. Unlike the cp command, gcp offers the following high-level functionalities:

  • Displays the copy progress indicator, with estimated time, current file speed etc.
  • gcp continue copying even when there is an issue. It will just skip the file with problem, and go on and copy the next files.
  • It can copy both single or multiple files or folders.
  • gcp logs all its action. So, we can easily know which files have been successfully copied.
  • If you accidentally cancels a copy process, it will keep the record of it. Instead of deleting the contents, it will keep the partially copied content. You can then run the copy process again, and it will copy the rest of the files where you left it.
  • If you launch a copy when an other is already running, the files are added to the first queue, this avoid your hard drive to move its read/write head all the time.
  • You can save a list of files you copied and copy them again later from that list. It will be very useful when you want to copy the same files to multiple targets.

Ever wondered how many Linux Kernels you have installed in your Linux box? No? Well, this brief tutorial will teach you how to view or check installed Linux Kernels on different Linux operating systems. It's not that difficult as you may think. Read on.

​Did you know that Android is based on Linux kernel? I bet you didn't. Although many Linux users know it and no matter how hard Google denies it, they still have to accept it that what they modified and used in Android was Linux Kernel. But we are not here to fight on some unsolvable problems. As you now where is Linux, there is Terminal
​The terminal is most of the times termed as Swiss-Knife of Linux based OS, cause through the power of terminal you can do almost anything on an OS, you can even play games on it, install software and much more cool stuff.

However, the power of terminal isn't that powerful in Android. Still, you can do many cool things on android using Linux terminal. Here is a small guide featuring some of the best uses of terminal. Let's go.

How can I see the content of a log file in real time in Linux? Well there are a lot of utilities out there that can help a user to output the content of a file while the file is changing or continuously updating. Some of the most known and heavily used utility to display a file content in real time in Linux is the tail command (manage files effectively).

How do I find out details about my Linux Laptops temperature, battery status and other information from the command prompt? How can I check battery status using the terminal on Linux?

Linux and laptop battery management have a complicated past. For years Linux has been notoriously bad at managing battery life. That's partly because such a huge amount of the work that goes into Linux goes into the server space. It's also because it's hard to guess what configuration a user's going to set up. Are you running Plasma on Gentoo and compiling software from scratch? Kiss your battery life goodbye. Do you have Ubuntu with LXQT on your laptop? You stand a good chance of that battery lasting a while.

How do I determine if a port is in use under Linux or UNIX-like system? How can I verify which ports are listening on Linux server?

It happens to everyone, and usually only when it matters the most. You might be gearing up for a family Christmas video chat, settling in for a movie night on your big screen TV, or getting ready to record a tune that popped into your head and needs freeing. At some point, if you use a computer, sound is going to need to be routed.

By default everyone prefer history command to review/recall the previously entered commands in terminal but unfortunately, that shows only the commands and doesn't shows the commands output which was performed previously.

If your work involves running tools and scripts on the Linux command line, I am sure there are a lot of commands you would be running each day. Those new to the command line should know there exists a tool - dubbed history - that gives you a list of commands you've executed earlier.

This post will quickly guide about how to Linux get ip address, subnet and related networking information.

rtop is a simple, agent-less, remote server monitoring tool that works over SSH. It doesn't required any other software to be installed on remote machine, except openSSH server package & remote server credentials.

I often ran out of memory. This is where Early OOM comes in help. For those wondering, it will kill the largest process in an unresponsive system when it has absolutely no other choices. Early OOM checks the amount of available memory and free swap 10 times a second. If both are below 10%, it will kill the largest process.

This tutorial explains how to setup and use an SVN repository server on CentOS. Before I start, let me explain what actually SVN represents and what it is used for. SVN is actually an abbreviation of SubVersion which had been created by the Apache software developer. It enables you to create and maintain your own repository and gives fine-grained access rights to a dedicated user.

It is very effective for controlling the versioning of files, documents or folders. It is very useful for any group or team that intends to start their own software projects.

En mageia no tuve necesidad de instalar la librería adicional que indicó el artículo.

Save some hassle by setting up aliases for the commands you often use.

Excel is an Microsoft spreadsheet program and its extension is .xls or .xlsx. Now we as Linux user can convert xls file to csv file in Linux and .xls to .csv. This quick guide will help you how we can convert xls file to csv file in Linux using program called SSConvert and Unoconv.

One of the fundamental features that makes Linux and other Unices useful is the “pipe”. Pipes allow separate processes to communicate without having been designed explicitly to work together. This allows tools quite narrow in their function to be combined in complex ways.


You know that the passwords chosen by the people you support are probably not strong enough to protect your infrastructure against a serious attack. And even the few exceptions to the rule are probably being reused on multiple servers and accounts. You beg and nag, but it's a losing battle.

Muchas veces, sobre todo cuando se anda trasteando, nos hemos visto en el aprieto de no poder acceder al sistema para repararlo, pero la solución es fácil: usar el comando chroot desde un LiveCD/RepairCD cualquiera.

You know that the passwords chosen by the people you support are probably not strong enough to protect your infrastructure against a serious attack. And even the few exceptions to the rule are probably being reused on multiple servers and accounts. You beg and nag, but it's a losing battle.

The Virtualization Technology enables your processor to act as a number of independent computer systems. This enables several operating systems to be running on the same machine at the same time. Whenever you want to install virtualization applications on your Ubuntu system such as VMware Workstation, VirtualBox etc., you should first verify if your system supports virtualization and if it is enabled. Only then you can run virtual machines using a single processor.

Virtual filesystems are the magic abstraction that makes the "everything is a file" philosophy of Linux possible.

Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) is a disk image file format which represents a virtual hard disk drive, capable of storing the complete contents of a physical hard drive. It's a container file that acts similar to a physical hard drive. The disk image replicates an existing hard drive and includes all data and structural features.

Multiple Arcade Machine Emulator

PlayStation 4 tiene una función llamada Remote Play que permite controlar (y jugar juegos) de forma remota. Oficialmente, esta característica solo funciona en Windows o macOS, pero gracias a Chiaki, puede usar su escritorio Linux (y otros) para jugar juegos de forma remota en su PlayStation 4. Dado que el juego se transmite a la computadora, no necesita un alto tarjeta gráfica de rendimiento, pero hay un poco de retraso.

As a Linux administrator, sometimes, you might be wondering whether you are working on a physical or virtual machine. Most of the time, you will be accessing and managing your servers remotely. You will not always have physical access of your servers, and you may not actually know where is your server located. However, it is possible to check if your Linux system is physical or virtual using couple of Linux utilities, no matter where it is located. This guide explains how to check whether the Linux system you're working on is a physical server or a virtual server.

Jack Wallen makes his case why the open source solution, VirtualBox, can be a great option for data centers.

This article focuses on those interested in learning how to use the Linux terminal without necessarily having a Linux machine they can use at their convenience. You can use them to not only practice Linux commands but to also test scripts, analyze compilation time, etc.


Ponle punto final a tus dudas sobre la configuración de arranque doble sin antes desfallecer y sigue algunas recomendaciones.

Microsoft incorporará un Kernel de Linux que tendrá compatibilidad total con las llamadas al sistema, corriendo de forma nativa y no de forma emulada como era hasta ahora. Esto permitirá un menor uso de recursos, y una mayor velocidad, que se notará sobre todo al manipular archivos.
QEMU and FreeDOS make it easy to run old DOS programs under Linux
Windows Subsystem for Linux is a utility developed by Microsoft to enable developers and Linux enthusiasts to run their favorite Linux environment natively on Windows 10 without the overhead of running a virtual machine. The way it works is similar to the way WINE works on Linux. WSL enables Linux binaries to run on Windows using a compatibility layer which translates the Linux system calls into Windows system calls.

Every computer user has been there, some more than once - that moment when you realize that you just deleted the wrong file or bunch of files. The recycle bin is useful for these kind of situations where files you delete are seemingly available in the recycle bin and can be restored later. There are a lot of situations where a deleted file doesn't go to the recycle bin, and this article will discuss how you can recover deleted Windows files with Linux, specifically Ubuntu. The techniques discussed here will work if you dual boot Windows and Linux or if you have a Ubuntu Live CD.

Un sencillo truco, para un sistema sin seguridad

Otra herramienta para acceder a un sistema operativo sin seguridad

Want to use Linux commands but don’t want to leave Windows? Here are several ways to run Linux bash commands in Windows.

Hay muchos problemas técnicos que deben resolverse antes de que este popular sistema de archivos anteriormente propietario pueda estar en el código de envío de Linux de código abierto.


Taller de instalación de Mageia.

adición, actualización y borrado

Un Linux entre dos redes puede ser un útil intermediario.

Publica tus páginas y aplicaciones web desde tu oficina.

Conferencia dictada en clase sobre los comandos y su versátil uso

Conferencia dictada en clase sobre los comandos y su versátil uso

Memorias de la conferencia vista en clase.

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